168 research outputs found

    The Effect of Conservation Agriculture and Environmental Factors on CO2 Emissions in a Rainfed Crop Rotation

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    There are many factors involved in the release of CO2 emissions from the soil, such as the type of soil management, the soil organic matter, the soil temperature and moisture conditions, crop phenological stage, weather conditions, residue management, among others. This study aimed to analyse the influence of these factors and their interactions to determine the emissions by evaluating the environmental cost expressed as the kg of CO2 emitted per kg of production in each of the crops and seasons studied. For this purpose, a field trial was conducted on a farm in Seville (Spain). The study compared Conservation Agriculture, including its three principles (no-tillage, permanent soil cover, and crop rotations), with conventional tillage. Carbon dioxide emissions measured across the four seasons of the experiment showed an increase strongly influenced by rainfall during the vegetative period, in both soil management systems. The results of this study confirm that extreme events of precipitation away from the normal means, result in episodes of high CO2 emissions into the atmosphere. This is very important because one of the consequences for future scenarios of climate change is precisely the increase of extreme episodes of precipitation and periods extremely dry, depending on the area considered. The total of emission values of the different plots of the study show how the soils under the conventional system (tillage) have been emitting 67% more than soils under the conventional agriculture system during the 2010/11 campaign and 25% for the last campaign where the most appreciable differences are observed

    Measurement of the complete nuclide production and kinetic energies of the system 136Xe + hydrogen at 1 GeV per nucleon

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    We present an extensive overview of production cross sections and kinetic energies for the complete set of nuclides formed in the spallation of 136Xe by protons at the incident energy of 1 GeV per nucleon. The measurement was performed in inverse kinematics at the FRagment Separator (GSI, Darmstadt). Slightly below the Businaro-Gallone point, 136Xe is the stable nuclide with the largest neutron excess. The kinematic data and cross sections collected in this work for the full nuclide production are a general benchmark for modelling the spallation process in a neutron-rich nuclear system, where fission is characterised by predominantly mass-asymmetric splits.Comment: 18 pages, 14 figure

    RAB8, RAB10 and RILPL1 contribute to both LRRK2 kinase-mediated centrosomal cohesion and ciliogenesis deficits

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    Mutations in the LRRK2 kinase are the most common cause of familial Parkinson's disease, and variants increase risk for the sporadic form of the disease. LRRK2 phosphorylates multiple RAB GTPases including RAB8A and RAB10. Phosphorylated RAB10 is recruited to centrosome-localized RILPL1, which may interfere with ciliogenesis in a disease-relevant context. Our previous studies indicate that the centrosomal accumulation of phosphorylated RAB8A causes centrosomal cohesion deficits in dividing cells, including in peripheral patient-derived cells. Here, we show that both RAB8 and RAB10 contribute to the centrosomal cohesion deficits. Pathogenic LRRK2 causes the centrosomal accumulation not only of phosho-RAB8 but also of phospho-RAB10, and the effects on centrosomal cohesion are dependent on RAB8, RAB10 and RILPL1. Conversely, the pathogenic LRRK2-mediated ciliogenesis defects correlate with the centrosomal accumulation of both phospho-RAB8 and phospho-RAB10. LRRK2-mediated centrosomal cohesion and ciliogenesis alterations are observed in patient-derived peripheral cells, as well as in primary astrocytes from mutant LRRK2 mice, and are reverted upon LRRK2 kinase inhibition. These data suggest that the LRRK2-mediated centrosomal cohesion and ciliogenesis defects are distinct cellular readouts of the same underlying phospho-RAB8/RAB10/RILPL1 nexus and highlight the possibility that either centrosomal cohesion and/or ciliogenesis alterations may serve as cellular biomarkers for LRRK2-related PD

    Present Status and Future Programs of the n_TOF Experiment

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    This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial License 3.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any noncommercial medium, provided the original work is properly citedThe neutron time-of-flight facility n_TOF at CERN, Switzerland, operational since 2001, delivers neutrons using the Proton Synchrotron (PS) 20 GeV/c proton beam impinging on a lead spallation target. The facility combines a very high instantaneous neutron flux, an excellent time of flight resolution due to the distance between the experimental area and the production target (185 meters), a low intrinsic background and a wide range of neutron energies, from thermal to GeV neutrons. These characteristics provide a unique possibility to perform neutron-induced capture and fission cross-section measurements for applications in nuclear astrophysics and in nuclear reactor technology.The most relevant measurements performed up to now and foreseen for the future will be presented in this contribution. The overall efficiency of the experimental program and the range of possible measurements achievable with the construction of a second experimental area (EAR-2), vertically located 20 m on top of the n_TOF spallation target, might offer a substantial improvement in measurement sensitivities. A feasibility study of the possible realisation of the installation extension will be also presented

    Update of the list of QPS-recommended biological agents intentionally added to food or feed as notified to EFSA 15: suitability of taxonomic units notified to EFSA until September 2021

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    The qualified presumption of safety (QPS) approach was developed to provide a generic pre-evaluation of the safety of biological agents. The QPS approach is based on an assessment of published data for each agent, with respect to its taxonomic identity, the body of relevant knowledge and safety concerns. Safety concerns are, where possible, confirmed at the species/strain or product level and reflected by ‘qualifications’. The QPS list was updated in relation to the revised taxonomy of the genus Bacillus, to synonyms of yeast species and for the qualifications ‘absence of resistance to antimycotics’ and ‘only for production purposes’. Lactobacillus cellobiosus has been reclassified as Limosilactobacillus fermentum. In the period covered by this statement, no new information was found that would change the status of previously recommended QPS taxonomic units (TU)s. Of the 70 microorganisms notified to EFSA, 64 were not evaluated: 11 filamentous fungi, one oomycete, one Clostridium butyricum, one Enterococcus faecium, five Escherichia coli, one Streptomyces sp., one Bacillus nakamurai and 43 TUs that already had a QPS status. Six notifications, corresponding to six TUs were evaluated: Paenibacillus lentus was reassessed because an update was requested for the current mandate. Enterococcus lactis synonym Enterococcus xinjiangensis, Aurantiochytrium mangrovei synonym Schizochytrium mangrovei, Schizochytrium aggregatum, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii synonym Chlamydomonas smithii and Haematococcus lacustris synonym Haematococcus pluvialis were assessed for the first time. The following TUs were not recommended for QPS status: P. lentus due to a limited body of knowledge, E. lactis synonym E. xinjiangensis due to potential safety concerns, A. mangrovei synonym S. mangrovei, S. aggregatum and C. reinhardtii synonym C. smithii, due to lack of a body of knowledge on its occurrence in the food and feed chain. H. lacustris synonym H. pluvialis is recommended for QPS status with the qualification ‘for production purposes only’

    Update of the list of qualified presumption of safety (QPS) recommended microorganisms intentionally added to food or feed as notified to EFSA

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    The qualified presumption of safety (QPS) provides a generic pre-assessment of the safety ofmicroorganisms intended for use in the food or feed chains, to support the work of EFSA’s ScientificPanels. QPS assessment allows a fast track evaluation of strains belonging to QPS taxonomic units(TUs): species for bacteria, yeast, fungi, protists/microalgae and families for viruses. QPS TUs areassessed for their body of knowledge and safety. Safety concerns related to a QPS TU are reflected,when possible, as‘qualifications’, which should be tested at strain and/or product level. Based on thepossession of potentially harmful traits by some strains,filamentous fungi, bacteriophages, oomycetes,streptomycetes,Enterococcus faecium,Escherichia coliandClostridium butyricumare excluded fromthe QPS assessment.Between October 2019 and September 2022, 323 notifications of TUs werereceived, 217 related to feed additives, 54 to food enzymes, food additives andflavourings, 14 to plantprotection products and 38 to novel foods. The list of QPS-recommended TUs is reviewed every6 months following an extensive literature search strategy. Only sporadic infections with a few QPSstatus TUs in immunosuppressed individuals were identified and the assessment did not change theQPS status of these TUs. The QPS list has been updated in relation to the most recent taxonomicinsights and the qualifications were revised and streamlined. The qualification‘absence ofaminoglycoside production ability’was withdrawn forBacillus velezensis. Six new TUs received the QPSstatus:Bacillus paralicheniformiswith the qualification‘absence of toxigenic activity’and‘absence ofbacitracin production ability’;Bacillus circulanswith the qualifications for‘production purposes only’and‘absence of cytotoxic activity’;Haematococcus lacustris(synonymHaematococcus pluvialis) andOgataea polymorpha, both with the qualification‘for production purposes only’;Lactiplantibacillusargentoratensis;Geobacillus thermodenitrificanswith the qualification‘absence of toxigenic activity

    Rapid tests and urine sampling techniques for the diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) in children under five years: a systematic review

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    Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common sources of infection in children under five. Prompt diagnosis and treatment is important to reduce the risk of renal scarring. Rapid, cost-effective, methods of UTI diagnosis are required as an alternative to culture. Methods: We conducted a systematic review to determine the diagnostic accuracy of rapid tests for detecting UTI in children under five years of age. Results: The evidence supports the use of dipstick positive for both leukocyte esterase and nitrite (pooled LR+ = 28.2, 95% CI: 17.3, 46.0) or microscopy positive for both pyuria and bacteriuria (pooled LR+ = 37.0, 95% CI: 11.0, 125.9) to rule in UTI. Similarly dipstick negative for both LE and nitrite (Pooled LR- = 0.20, 95% CI: 0.16, 0.26) or microscopy negative for both pyuria and bacteriuria (Pooled LR- = 0.11, 95% CI: 0.05, 0.23) can be used to rule out UTI. A test for glucose showed promise in potty-trained children. However, all studies were over 30 years old. Further evaluation of this test may be useful. Conclusion: Dipstick negative for both LE and nitrite or microscopic analysis negative for both pyuria and bacteriuria of a clean voided urine, bag, or nappy/pad specimen may reasonably be used to rule out UTI. These patients can then reasonably be excluded from further investigation, without the need for confirmatory culture. Similarly, combinations of positive tests could be used to rule in UTI, and trigger further investigation

    Update of the list of QPS-recommended biological agents intentionally added to food or feed as notified to EFSA 12: suitability of taxonomic units notified to EFSA until March 2020

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    The qualified presumption of safety (QPS) was developed to provide a generic safety evaluation for biological agents to support EFSA's Scientific Panels. It is based on an assessment of the taxonomic identity, the body of knowledge, safety concerns and antimicrobial resistance. Safety concerns identified for a taxonomic unit (TU) are where possible to be confirmed at strain or product level, reflected by \u2018qualifications\u2019. No new information was found that would change the previously recommended QPS TUs of the 39 microorganisms notified to EFSA between October 2019 and March 2020, 33 were excluded, including five filamentous fungi, five Escherichia coli, two Enterococcus faecium, two Streptomyces spp. and 19 TUs already evaluated. Six TUs were evaluated. Akkermansia muciniphila was not recommended for QPS status due to safety concerns. Clostridium butyricum was not recommended because some strains contain pathogenicity factors. This TU was excluded for further QPS evaluation. Galdieria sulphuraria and Pseudomonas chlororaphis were also rejected due to a lack of body of knowledge. The QPS status of Corynebacterium ammoniagenes (with the qualification \u2018for production purposes only\u2019) and of Komagataella pastoris (with the qualification \u2018for enzyme production\u2019) was confirmed. In relation to the taxonomic revision of the Lactobacillus genus, previously designated Lactobacillus species will be reassigned to the new species and both the old and new names will be retained in the QPS list

    Scientific Opinion on the update of the list of QPS-recommended biological agents intentionally added to food or feed as notified to EFSA (2017–2019)

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    The qualified presumption of safety (QPS) was developed to provide a safety pre-assessment within EFSA for microorganisms. Strains belonging to QPS taxonomic units (TUs) still require an assessment based on a specific data package, but QPS status facilitates fast track evaluation. QPS TUs are unambiguously defined biological agents assessed for the body of knowledge, their safety and their end use. Safety concerns are, where possible, to be confirmed at strain or product level, and reflected as ‘qualifications’. Qualifications need to be evaluated at strain level by the respective EFSA units. The lowest QPS TU is the species level for bacteria, yeasts and protists/algae, and the family for viruses. The QPS concept is also applicable to genetically modified microorganisms used for production purposes if the recipient strain qualifies for the QPS status, and if the genetic modification does not indicate a concern. Based on the actual body of knowledge and/or an ambiguous taxonomic position, the following TUs were excluded from the QPS assessment: filamentous fungi, oomycetes, streptomycetes, Enterococcus faecium, Escherichia coli and bacteriophages. The list of QPS-recommended biological agents was reviewed and updated in the current opinion and therefore now becomes the valid list. For this update, reports on the safety of previously assessed microorganisms, including bacteria, yeasts and viruses (the latter only when used for plant protection purposes) were reviewed, following an Extensive Literature Search strategy. All TUs previously recommended for 2016 QPS list had their status reconfirmed as well as their qualifications. The TUs related to the new notifications received since the 2016 QPS opinion was periodically evaluated for QPS status in the Statements of the BIOHAZ Panel, and the QPS list was also periodically updated. In total, 14 new TUs received a QPS status between 2017 and 2019: three yeasts, eight bacteria and three algae/protists