5,673 research outputs found

    Microwave Heating Applied to Pyrolysis

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    the MW pyrolysis as an original thermochemical process of materials is presented. This chapter comprises a general overview of the thermochemical and quantifying aspects of the pyrolysis process, including current application togethe with a compilation of the most frequently used materialsPeer reviewe

    Time course of muscle activation, energetics and mechanics of running in minimalist and traditional cushioned shoes during level running.

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    The study aimed to compare the ankle muscles activation, biomechanics and energetics of running in male runners during submaximal level run using minimalist (MinRS) and traditional cushioned (TrdRS) running shoes. During 45-min running in MinRS and TrdRS, the ankle muscles pre- and co-activation, biomechanics, and energetics of running of 16 male endurance runners (25.5 ± 3.5 yr) were assessed using surface electromyography (tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius lateralis), instrumented treadmill and indirect calorimetry, respectively. The net energy cost of running (C <sub>r</sub> ) was similar for both conditions (P = 0.25) with a significant increase over time (P < 0.0001). Step frequency (P < 0.001), and total mechanical work (P = 0.001) were significantly higher in MinRS than in TrdRS with no evolution over time (P = 0.28 and P = 0.85, respectively). The ankle muscles pre- and co-activation during the contact phase did not differ between the two shoe conditions (P ≥ 0.33) or over time (P ≥ 0.15). In conclusion, during 45-min running, Cr and muscle pre- and co-activation were not significantly different between MinRS and TrdRS with significantly higher step frequency and total mechanical work noted in the former than in the latter. Moreover, C <sub>r</sub> significantly increased during the 45-min trial in both shoe conditions along with no significant change over time in muscle activation and biomechanical variables

    Serum HER-2 concentration is associated with insulin resistance and decreases after weight loss.

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    HER2/neu is a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor family easily detectable in the serum of cancer patients. We aimed to evaluate circulating HER-2 concentrations in association with insulin resistance in healthy and obese subjects. METHODS: Insulin sensitivity (minimal model) and serum HER-2 concentrations were evaluated in a cross sectional study in men (cohort 1, n = 167) and longitudinally after weight loss in obese subjects (cohort 2, n = 30). RESULTS: Serum HER-2 concentrations were positively associated with BMI and waist circumference (both r = 0.18, p = 0.02), post-load glucose (r = 0.28, p = 0.001) and fasting triglycerides (r = 0.26, p = 0.001); and negatively associated with insulin sensitivity (r = -0.29, p = 0.002, n = 109). Subjects with type 2 diabetes showed significantly increased soluble serum HER-2 concentrations. In different multivariate regression models, fasting triglycerides emerged as the factor that independently contributed to 10-11% of serum HER-2 variance.Serum HER-2 concentrations correlated significantly with fasting triglycerides and insulin sensitivity index in subjects from cohort 2. Weight loss led to a significant decrease of serum HER-2 concentrations. The change in serum HER-2 concentrations were significantly associated with the change in percent body fat and fasting triglycerides in young (below the median age of the cohort) subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Serum HER-2 concentrations might be implicated in the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and associated comorbidities

    Enfermedad de Hirschsprung, a propósito de un caso

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    Introduction: Hirschsprung's disease (HD) is within theclinical context one of Pediatric diseases that lowerIncidencehas, representing barely 2.7% of all of them, according todata from the American College of Pediatrics (ACP). However, its pathophysiologyand clinical behavior governed by the age of the patient are the main variablesthat complicate the diagnosis and give errors of up to 35%(ACP). The mortality of patients can amount up to 65% whenthe EH is complicated with a picture of Necrotizingenterocolitis, in a patient who has notbeen theeliminationof meconium within the first 12 hours of life must suspecteh, always takinginto account the patient's age and recallingthat preterm the same delay can be considered normal, while in the case oflarger aged patients the incidence of thedisease is lower, however the diagnostic probability should not be disregarded. Sepsis in abdominal origin andnecrotising enterocolitis are two of the major complicationsof which the physician should be prevented, even when, asreported in the present case, even patients who are opposedto the main factors of risk described in literature, such asage, can develop a HD box and a latent risk of complicationlikethe rest of patients that if shared these risk factors. Objective: To describe a case of Hirschsprung's disease. Material and methods: a descriptive, retrospective studyabout Hirschsprung's disease clinical case presenta-tion. Results: Describes a case of Hirschsprung's disease inpediatric patient with complications and resolution satisfactory quirurgica. Conclusions: The proper implementation of the clinicalmethod allows an accurate diagnosis and timely treatmentof Hirschsprung's disease.Introducción: La Enfermedad deHirschsprung (EH) es dentro del contexto clínico-quirúrgico una de las patologías pediátricas que menor incidencia posee, representando a penas el 2,7% de todas ellas según datos del Colegio Americano de Pediatría (ACP). Sin embargo, su fisiopatología y su comportamiento clínico regido por la edad del paciente son las principales variables que complican el diagnóstico y dan errores de hasta un 35% (ACP). La mortalidad de los pacientes puede ascender hasta un 65% cuando la EHse complica con un cuadro de enterocolitis necrotizante, en un paciente que no se ha conseguido la eliminación de meconio dentro de las 12 primeras horas de vida deberá sospecharse de EH, siempre tomando en cuenta la edad del pacientey recordando que en pretérminos el retraso del mismopuede considerarse normal, mientras que en el caso de pacientes más grandes de edadla incidencia de la patología es menor, sin embargo la probabilidad diagnóstica no debe de ser menospreciada. La sepsis de origen abdominal y enterocolitis necrotizante son dos de las grandes complicaciones de las cuales el médico debe estar prevenido, más aún, cuando, como se relata en el presente caso clínico, incluso pacientes que se contraponen a los principales factores de riesgo descritos por la literatura, como la edad, pueden desarrollar un cuadro de EH y tener un riesgo latente de complicación al igual que el resto de pacientes que si comparten dichos factores de riesgos. Objetivo: Describir un caso clínico de Enfermedad de Hirschsprung. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, presentación de caso clínico sobre Enfermedad de Hirschsprung. Resultados: Se describe un caso de Enfermedad de Hirschsprung en paciente pediátrico con complicaciones y resolución quirpurgica satisfactoria. Conclusiones: La adecuada aplicación del método clínico permite un diagnóstico preciso y tratamiento oportuno de la Enfermedad de Hirschsprung

    Enfermedad de Hirschsprung, a propósito de un caso

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    Introduction: Hirschsprung's disease (HD) is within theclinical context one of Pediatric diseases that lowerIncidencehas, representing barely 2.7% of all of them, according todata from the American College of Pediatrics (ACP). However, its pathophysiologyand clinical behavior governed by the age of the patient are the main variablesthat complicate the diagnosis and give errors of up to 35%(ACP). The mortality of patients can amount up to 65% whenthe EH is complicated with a picture of Necrotizingenterocolitis, in a patient who has notbeen theeliminationof meconium within the first 12 hours of life must suspecteh, always takinginto account the patient's age and recallingthat preterm the same delay can be considered normal, while in the case oflarger aged patients the incidence of thedisease is lower, however the diagnostic probability should not be disregarded. Sepsis in abdominal origin andnecrotising enterocolitis are two of the major complicationsof which the physician should be prevented, even when, asreported in the present case, even patients who are opposedto the main factors of risk described in literature, such asage, can develop a HD box and a latent risk of complicationlikethe rest of patients that if shared these risk factors. Objective: To describe a case of Hirschsprung's disease. Material and methods: a descriptive, retrospective studyabout Hirschsprung's disease clinical case presenta-tion. Results: Describes a case of Hirschsprung's disease inpediatric patient with complications and resolution satisfactory quirurgica. Conclusions: The proper implementation of the clinicalmethod allows an accurate diagnosis and timely treatmentof Hirschsprung's disease.Introducción: La Enfermedad deHirschsprung (EH) es dentro del contexto clínico-quirúrgico una de las patologías pediátricas que menor incidencia posee, representando a penas el 2,7% de todas ellas según datos del Colegio Americano de Pediatría (ACP). Sin embargo, su fisiopatología y su comportamiento clínico regido por la edad del paciente son las principales variables que complican el diagnóstico y dan errores de hasta un 35% (ACP). La mortalidad de los pacientes puede ascender hasta un 65% cuando la EHse complica con un cuadro de enterocolitis necrotizante, en un paciente que no se ha conseguido la eliminación de meconio dentro de las 12 primeras horas de vida deberá sospecharse de EH, siempre tomando en cuenta la edad del pacientey recordando que en pretérminos el retraso del mismopuede considerarse normal, mientras que en el caso de pacientes más grandes de edadla incidencia de la patología es menor, sin embargo la probabilidad diagnóstica no debe de ser menospreciada. La sepsis de origen abdominal y enterocolitis necrotizante son dos de las grandes complicaciones de las cuales el médico debe estar prevenido, más aún, cuando, como se relata en el presente caso clínico, incluso pacientes que se contraponen a los principales factores de riesgo descritos por la literatura, como la edad, pueden desarrollar un cuadro de EH y tener un riesgo latente de complicación al igual que el resto de pacientes que si comparten dichos factores de riesgos. Objetivo: Describir un caso clínico de Enfermedad de Hirschsprung. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, presentación de caso clínico sobre Enfermedad de Hirschsprung. Resultados: Se describe un caso de Enfermedad de Hirschsprung en paciente pediátrico con complicaciones y resolución quirpurgica satisfactoria. Conclusiones: La adecuada aplicación del método clínico permite un diagnóstico preciso y tratamiento oportuno de la Enfermedad de Hirschsprung

    CSA06 Computing, Software and Analysis challenge at the Spanish Tier-1 and Tier-2 sites

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    This note describes the participation of the Spanish centres PIC, CIEMAT and IFCA as Tier-1 and Tier-2 sites in the CMS CSA06 Computing, Software and Analysis challenge. A number of the facilities, services and workflows have been demonstrated at the 2008 25% scale. Very valuable experience has been gained running the complex computing system under realistic conditions at a significant scale. The focus of this note is on presenting achieved results, operational experience and lessons learnt during the challenge

    Predictive Value of Carcinoembryonic Antigen in Symptomatic Patients without Colorectal Cancer: A Post-Hoc Analysis within the COLONPREDICT Cohort

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    We aimed to assess the risk of cancer in patients with abdominal symptoms after a complete colonoscopy without colorectal cancer (CRC), according to the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) concentration, as well as its diagnostic accuracy. For this purpose, we performed a post-hoc analysis within a cohort of 1431 patients from the COLONPREDICT study, prospectively designed to assess the fecal immunochemical test accuracy in detecting CRC. Over 36.5 +/- 8.4 months, cancer was detected in 115 (8%) patients. Patients with CEA values higher than 3 ng/mL revealed an increased risk of cancer (HR 2.0, 95% CI 1.3-3.1), CRC (HR 4.4, 95% CI 1.1-17.7) and non-gastrointestinal cancer (HR 1.7, 95% CI 1.0-2.8). A new malignancy was detected in 51 (3.6%) patients during the first year and three variables were independently associated: anemia (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.3-5.8), rectal bleeding (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.1-0.7) and CEA level >3 ng/mL (OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.7-7.1). However, CEA was increased only in 31.8% (95% CI, 16.4-52.7%) and 50% (95% CI, 25.4-74.6%) of patients with and without anemia, respectively, who would be diagnosed with cancer during the first year of follow-up. On the basis of this information, CEA should not be used to assist in the triage of patients presenting with lower bowel symptoms who have recently been ruled out a CRC

    Olive oil's bitter principle reverses acquired autoresistance to trastuzumab (Herceptin™) in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells

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    [Background] A low incidence of breast cancer in the Mediterranean basin suggests that a high consumption of Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) might confer this benefit. While the anti-HER2 oncogene effects of the main ω-9 fatty acid present in EVOO triacylglycerols (i.e., oleic acid) have been recently described, the anti-breast cancer activities of EVOO non-glyceridic constituents -which consist of at least 30 phenolic compounds-, remained to be evaluated. [Methods] Semi-preparative HPLC was used to isolate EVOO polyphenols (i.e., tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein). Both the anti-proliferative and the pro-apoptotic effects of EVOO phenolics were evaluated by using MTT-based quantification of metabolically viable cells and ELISA-based detection of histone-associated DNA fragments, respectively. The nature of the interaction between oleuropein aglycone and the anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody trastuzumab (Herceptin™) was mathematically evaluated by the dose-oriented isobologram technique. HER2-specific ELISAs were employed to quantitatively assess both the basal cleavage of the HER2 extracellular domain (ECD) and the expression level of total HER2. The activation status of HER2 was evaluated by immunoblotting procedures using a monoclonal antibody specifically recognizing the tyrosine phosphorylated (Phosphor-Tyr1248) form of HER2. [Results] Among EVOO polyphenols tested, oleuropein aglycone was the most potent EVOO phenolic in decreasing breast cancer cell viability. HER2 gene-amplified SKBR3 cells were ~5-times more sensitive to oleuropein aglycone than HER2-negative MCF-7 cells. Retroviral infection of the HER2 oncogene in MCF-7 cells resulted in a "SKBR3-assimilated" phenotype of hypersensitivity to oleuropein aglycone. An up to 50-fold increase in the efficacy of trastuzumab occurred in the presence of oleuropein aglycone. A preclinical model of acquired autoresistance to trastuzumab (SKBR3/Tzb100 cells) completely recovered trastuzumab sensitivity (> 1,000-fold sensitization) when co-cultured in the presence of oleuropein aglycone. Indeed, the nature of the interaction between oleuropein aglycone and trastuzumab was found to be strongly synergistic in Tzb-resistant SKBR3/Tzb100 cells. Mechanistically, oleuropein aglycone treatment significantly reduced HER2 ECD cleavage and subsequent HER2 auto-phosphorylation, while it dramatically enhanced Tzb-induced down-regulation of HER2 expression. [Conclusion] Olive oil's bitter principle (i.e., oleuropein aglycone) is among the first examples of how selected nutrients from an EVOO-rich "Mediterranean diet" directly regulate HER2-driven breast cancer disease.JAM is the recipient of a Basic, Clinical and Translational Research Award (BCTR0600894) from the Susan G. Komen Breast Cancer Foundation (Texas, USA). This work was also supported by the Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo, Fondo de Investigación Sanitaria -FIS-, Spain, Grants CP05-00090 and PI06-0778 to JAM, and Grant RD06-0020-0028 to JAM, RC and JB)
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