1,145 research outputs found

    High Redshift Supernova Rates

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    We use a sample of 42 supernovae detected with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on-board the Hubble Space Telescope as part of the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey to measure the rate of core collapse supernovae to z~0.7 and type Ia supernovae to z~1.6. This significantly increases the redshift range where supernova rates have been estimated from observations. The rate of core collapse supernovae can be used as an independent probe of the cosmic star formation rate. Based on the observations of 17 core collapse supernovae, we measure an increase in the core collapse supernova rate by a factor of 1.6 in the range 0.3<z<0.7, and an overall increase by a factor of 7 to z~0.7 in comparison to the local core collapse supernova rate. The increase in the rate in this redshift range in consistent with recent measurements of the star formation rate derived from UV-luminosity densities and IR datasets. Based on 25 type Ia supernovae, we find a SN Ia rate that is a factor 3-5 higher at z~1 compared to earlier estimates at lower redshifts (z<0.5), implying that the type Ia supernova rate traces a higher star formation rate at redshifts z>1 compared to low redshift. At higher redshift (z>1), we find a suggested decrease in the type Ia rate with redshift. This evolution of the Ia rate with redshift is consistent with a type Ia progenitor model where there is a substantial delay between the formation of the progenitor star and the explosion of the supernova. Assuming that the type Ia progenitor stars have initial main sequence masses 3-8 M_Sun, we find that 5-7% of the available progenitors explode as type Ia supernovae.Comment: 16 pages, 3 figures, accepted for publication in the Astrophysical Journa

    Rest-Frame UV-Optical Selected Galaxies at 2.3 ≾ z ≾ 3.5: Searching for Dusty Star-forming and Passively Evolving Galaxies

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    A new set of color selection criteria (VJL) analogous with the BzK method is designed to select both star-forming galaxies (SFGs) and passively evolving galaxies (PEGs) at 2.3 ≾ z ≾ 3.5 by using rest-frame UV-optical (V – J versus J – L) colors. The criteria are thoroughly tested with theoretical stellar population synthesis models and real galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts to evaluate their efficiency and contamination. We apply the well-tested VJL criteria to the HST/WFC3 Early Release Science field and study the physical properties of selected galaxies. The redshift distribution of selected SFGs peaks at z ~ 2.7, slightly lower than that of Lyman break galaxies at z ~ 3. Comparing the observed mid-infrared fluxes of selected galaxies with the prediction of pure stellar emission, we find that our VJL method is effective at selecting massive dusty SFGs that are missed by the Lyman break technique. About half of the star formation in massive (M_(star) > 10^(10) M_☉) galaxies at 2.3 ≾ z ≾ 3.5 is contributed by dusty (extinction E(B – V) > 0.4) SFGs, which, however, only account for ~20% of the number density of massive SFGs. We also use the mid-infrared fluxes to clean our PEG sample and find that galaxy size can be used as a secondary criterion to effectively eliminate the contamination of dusty SFGs. The redshift distribution of the cleaned PEG sample peaks at z ~ 2.5. We find six PEG candidates at z > 3 and discuss possible methods to distinguish them from dusty contamination. We conclude that at least part of our candidates are real PEGs at z ~ 3, implying that these types of galaxies began to form their stars at z ≳ 5. We measure the integrated stellar mass density (ISMD) of PEGs at z ~ 2.5 and set constraints on it at z > 3. We find that the ISMD grows by at least about a factor of 10 in 1 Gyr at 3 < z <5 and by another factor of 10 in the next 3.5 Gyr (1 < z < 3)

    Efficacy of weekly docetaxel in locally advanced cardiac angiosarcoma

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    Background: Primary cardiac angiosarcoma is extremely aggressive; however, it is often misdiagnosed because of its rarity. For locally advanced tumors, doxorubicin-based chemotherapy regimens are the standard of treatment, even if the gain in term of progression-free survival is limited and is no longer than 5 months. Case presentation: We report the case of a Caucasian 23-year-old man with locally advanced cardiac angiosarcoma who underwent radical surgical resection after a prolonged response to weekly docetaxel and complementary radiotherapy. Conclusion: Combined treatment with weekly docetaxel and radiotherapy may be a valid alternative for the treat-ment of locally advanced cardiac angiosarcoma; the combination can lead to radical surgical resections, avoiding the cumulative cardiotoxicity of antracycline-based regimens

    Clustering of the IR Background Light with Spitzer: Contribution from Resolved Sources

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    We describe the angular power spectrum of resolved sources at 3.6 microns (L-band) in Spitzer imaging data of the GOODS HDF-N, the GOODS CDF-S, and the NDWFS Bootes field in several source magnitude bins. We also measure angular power spectra of resolved sources in the Bootes field at K_S and J-bands using ground-based IR imaging data. In the three bands, J, K_S, and L, we detect the clustering of galaxies on top of the shot-noise power spectrum at multipoles between ell ~ 10^2 and 10^5. The angular power spectra range from the large, linear scales to small, non-linear scales of galaxy clustering, and in some magnitude ranges, show departure from a power-law clustering spectrum. We consider a halo model to describe clustering measurements and to establish the halo occup ation number parameters of IR bright galaxies at redshifts around one. We also extend our clustering results and completeness-corrected faint source number counts in GOODS fields to understand the underlying nature of unresolved sources responsible for IR background (IRB) anisotropies that were detected in deep Spitzer images. While these unresolved fluctuations were measured at sub-arcminute angular scales, if a high-redshift diffuse component associated with first galaxies exists in the IRB, then it's clustering properties are best studied with shallow, wide-field images that allow a measurement of the clustering spectrum from a few degrees to arcminute angular scales.Comment: 12 pages, 11 figures. Accepted version in press with ApJ. Revised version includes conditional luminosity function models for IR galaxy LFs, counts and clustering spectra. The faint, unresolved galaxy counts in these models can reproduce excess anisotropy fluctuations reported in astro-ph/0511105. Conditional luminosity function code is available at http://www.cooray.org/lumfunc.html V3: Includes all data from astro-ph/0511105 in revised Fig.8 and minor changes to tex

    High-z Galaxies Detected by the GOODS IRAC Observations in the HST Ultra Deep Field

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    The first epoch of Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) observations of the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) Spitzer Legacy Program have successfully detected galaxies out to z ≈ 6, allowing us to study the rest-frame optical properties of galaxies at these very high redshifts. We investigate such properties of a collection of Lyman-break galaxy candidates at z=5–6 in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF), several of which have spectroscopic confirmations. We find that the bulk of the rest-frame optical fluxes of these IRAC-identified high-redshift galaxies are best fitted by well-evolved stellar populations with stellar masses of a few ×10^(10) M_☉ and ages of a few hundred million years. This implies that massive galaxies already existed when the universe was only ~0.9 Gyr old, and that the formation redshifts of their evolved components could be as early as at z_f ≈ 10–11. These evolved populations can be well explained by a single stellar population, suggesting that they were formed through a sudden on-set rather than a prolonged process. Their colors are consistent with solar metallicity, suggesting that they might already have been significantly polluted by metals

    Low temperature Rosseland opacities with varied abundances of carbon and nitrogen

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    We attempt to produce low temperature opacity data incorporating the effects of varied abundances of the elements carbon and nitrogen. For our temperature range of interest, molecules represent the dominant opacity source. Our dataset covers a wide metallicity range and is meant to provide important input data for stellar evolution models and other applications. We conduct chemical equilibrium calculations to evaluate the partial pressures of neutral atoms, ions, and molecules. Based on a large dataset containing atomic line and continuum data and, most importantly, a plethora of molecular lines, we calculate Rosseland mean opacity coefficients not only for a number of different metallicities, but also for varied abundances of the isotopes ^{12}C and ^{14}N at each metallicity. The molecular data comprise the main opacity sources for either an oxygen-rich or carbon-rich chemistry. We tabulate the opacity coefficients as a function of temperature and, basically, density. Due to the special role of the CO molecule, within a certain chemistry regime an alteration to the carbon abundance causes considerable changes in the Rosseland opacity. The transition from a scaled solar (i. e. oxygen-rich) mixture to a carbon-rich regime results in opacities that can, at low temperatures, differ by orders of magnitude from to the initial situation. The reason is that the mean opacity in either case is due to different molecular absorbers. Variations in the abundance of nitrogen have less pronounced effects but, nevertheless, cannot be neglected. [abridged]Comment: 14 pages, 11 figures, 3 tables, accepted for publication in A&A, language revised. The data described in the article are available at the CDS or on request from the autho

    Tolerability and Clinical Activity of Post-Transplantation Azacitidine in Patients Allografted for Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treated on the RICAZA Trial

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    AbstractDisease relapse is the major causes of treatment failure after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). As well as demonstrating significant clinical activity in AML, azacitidine (AZA) upregulates putative tumor antigens, inducing a CD8+ T cell response with the potential to augment a graft-versus-leukemia effect. We, therefore, studied the feasibility and clinical sequelae of the administration of AZA during the first year after transplantation in 51 patients with AML undergoing allogeneic SCT. Fourteen patients did not commence AZA either because of transplantation complications or withdrawal of consent. Thirty-seven patients commenced AZA at a median of 54 days (range, 40 to 194 days) after transplantation, which was well tolerated in the majority of patients. Thirty-one patients completed 3 or more cycles of AZA. Sixteen patients relapsed at a median time of 8 months after transplantation. No patient developed extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease. The induction of a post-transplantation CD8+ T cell response to 1 or more tumor-specific peptides was studied in 28 patients. Induction of a CD8+ T cell response was associated with a reduced risk of disease relapse (hazard ratio [HR], .30; 95% confidence interval [CI], .10 to .85; P = .02) and improved relapse-free survival (HR, .29; 95% CI, .10 to .83; P = .02) taking into account death as a competing risk. In conclusion, AZA is well tolerated after transplantation and appears to have the capacity to reduce the relapse risk in patients who demonstrate a CD8+ T cell response to tumor antigens. These observations require confirmation in a prospective clinical trial
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