755 research outputs found

    Home- and Car-Based Rules in Foster Care Settings to Reduce Exposure to Secondhand Smoke: Before and after Romanian National Clean Air Legislation.

    Get PDF
    Background: To evaluate changes in smoke free rules in the foster care system after the implementation of the Romanian national clean air law. Methods: A repeated cross-sectional, self-administered questionnaire among foster care employees (n = 599) was conducted in 58 foster care homes during 2014 (n = 295) and 51 homes during 2016 (n = 304). We estimated the absolute difference in the proportion of employees who stated that smoke free rules existed before and after national clean air legislation. Results: There was an absolute increase in 4 of 5 smoke free measures after the law: bans on non-cigarette tobacco products (n = 169 to 206, +10.6%), non-smoking on premises for adults (n = 142 to 202, +18.3%), and for children (n = 201 to 239, +10.3%), and no smoking in cars to transport children (n = 194 to 227, +9%). There was a significant increase in the perception of outdoor bans that prohibit employees from smoking on foster care home premises (AOR 2.24, 95% CI 1.14(-)4.38). The increase in the perception of indoor smoking bans did not change. Conclusion: The national law may have had a spillover influence by strengthening smoke free rules in unregulated spaces. Nonetheless, foster care home rules could be further enhanced, particularly in cars that transport children

    Inter-Examiner Reliability of an Anterior Superior Iliac Spine Compression Test used to Lateralize Pelvic Somatic Dysfunction to the Right Side or Not

    Get PDF
    BACKGROUND: Osteopathic physicians use a number of palpatory structural examinations to diagnose pelvic somatic dysfunction (SD). They may elect to use the Anterior Superior Iliac Spine (ASIS) Compression Test to lateralize the dysfunctional side. Accurate, reliable tests are crucial to neuromusculoskeletal diagnosis and this study employs the kappa (κ) analysis protocol recommended for assessing interexaminer reliability of manual medicine tests (published by the Fédération Internationale de Médecine Manuelle [FIMM]). κ-values ≥0.40 (moderate agreement) are considered to be acceptable for use in the clinical setting

    Effects of Chitin and Contact Insecticide Complexes on Rove Beetles in Commercial Orchards

    Get PDF
    A five-year research project was performed to explore the potential effects of contact insecticide applications on the change of abundance and species richness of predatory rove beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) in conventionally managed orchards. Twelve blocks of nine orchards were used for this study in Central Europe. High sensitivity atomic force microscopic examination was carried out for chitin structure analyses as well as computer simulation for steric energy calculation between insecticides and chitin. The species richness of rove beetles in orchards was relatively high after insecticide application. Comparing the mean abundance before and after insecticide application, a higher value was observed before spraying with alphacypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin, and a lower value was observed in the cases of diflubenzuron, malathion, lufenuron, and phosalone. The species richness was higher only before chlorpyrifos-methyl application. There was a negative correlation between abundance and stability value of chitin-insecticides, persistence time, and soil absorption coefficients. Positive correlation was observed with lipo- and water solubility

    Effect of Prior Anterior Superior Iliac Spine Compression Testing on Second Assessor Findings: Implications for Inter-Examiner Reliability Testing

    Get PDF
    BACKGROUND: Osteopathic physicians use palpation to diagnose sacroiliac joint somatic dysfunction (SD) -- including the Anterior Superior Iliac Spine (ASIS) Compression Test for dysfunctional side lateralization. (Literature suggests right-sided lateralization in 80% of asymptomatic individuals). Accurate, reliable tests are crucial however to diagnose SD and kappa (κ) analysis is a gold-standard to determine the degree of interexaminer reliability for tests. Few studies have examined the effect the palpatory examination has on subsequent diagnostic findings and therefore on κ-values

    The Use of Objective Data to Improve Interexaminer Reliability

    Get PDF
    BACKGROUND: In Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine (OMM) and Manual/Musculoskeletal Medicine (MMM), palpatory diagnosis is performed on a regular basis to diagnose somatic dysfunction (SD). This examination requires careful and precise touch coupled with subjective interpretation by individual examiners who may have been trained to evaluate SD through different methods. Interexaminer reliability studies aim to minimize variance by providing quantifiable scientific data to evaluate specific test protocols which can then be taught to practitioners. In a previous PCOM study, two examiners independently diagnosed innominate bone dysfunction lateralized using the ASIS compression test on a large group of subjects. A pressure monitoring system (IsoTOUCH®, Chattanooga TN) has been used in various studies at the PCOM Human Performance & Biomechanics Laboratory (Kuchera, Jean et al 2006 & Kuchera, Vardy et al 2005) to quantify or standardize forces used in palpatory diagnosis or OMM/MMM treatment applications. This study gathered data during the tesing phase of a new and improved model of this system, using the protocol of the previous ASIS interexaminer reliability study. The data collected during standardization of the system was analyzed in the same manner as the previous study to compare the results of interexaminer reliability to results achieved using live data feed for baseline pressure synchronization between examiners

    Comparing Inter-Examiner Reliability Levels when Diagnosing Male & Female Innominate Dysfunctions Using a Hemi-Pelvise Compression Lateralization Test and Pelvic Landmark Levels.

    Get PDF
    BACKGROUND: When diagnosing innominate somatic dysfunctions it may be relevant to recognize that structural, functional, and hormonal differences exist between male and female pelvises. The female pelvis is less massive, ilia are less sloped, and female hormones influence ligamentous tension. Despite these differences, few studies have analyzed gender effects on inter-examiner reliability when using palpatory diagnosis to diagnose innominate dysfunctions. In this study, we hypothesized that interexaminer reliability would be higher in male subjects than in female subjects due cyclic variability of hormonal influence of ligamentous tension in the female pelvis. The kappa (κ) statistic was selected to evaluate inter-examiner reliability as it is designed to eliminate agreement by chance. The agreement scale as proposed by Landis and Koch was used in the evaluation if the κ-value

    Estimating the Rotation Rate in the Vacuolar Proton-ATPase in Native Yeast Vacuolar Membranes

    Get PDF
    The rate of rotation of the rotor of the yeast vacuolar proton-ATPase (V-ATPase), relative to the stator or the steady parts of enzyme, is estimated in native vacuolar membrane vesicles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under standardised conditions. Membrane vesicles are spontaneously formed after exposing purified yeast vacuoles to osmotic shock. The fraction of the total ATPase activity originating from V-ATPase is determined using the potent and specific inhibi-tor of the enzyme, concanamycin A. Inorganic phosphate liberated from ATP in the vacuolar membrane vesicle system, during 10 min of ATPase activity at 20 °C, is assayed spectrophotometrically for different concanamycin A concentrations. A fit to the quadratic binding equation, assuming a single concanamycin A binding site on a monomeric V-ATPase (our data is incompatible with models assuming more binding sites) to the inhibitor titration curve determines the concentration of the enzyme. Combining it with the known rotation:ATP stoichiometry of V-ATPase and the assayed concentration of inorganic phosphate liberated by V-ATPase leads to an average rate of ~9.53 Hz of the 360 degrees rotation, which, according to the time-dependence of the activity, extrapolates to ~14.14 Hz for the beginning of the reaction. These are low limit estimates. To our knowledge this is the first report of the rotation rate in a V-ATPase that is not subjected to genetic or chemical modification and it is not fixed on a solid support, instead it is functioning in its native membrane environment

    Monitoring Space Weather: Using Automated, Accurate Neural Network Based Whistler Segmentation for Whistler Inversion

    Get PDF
    It is challenging, yet important, to measure the - ever-changing - cold electron density in the plasmasphere. The cold electron density inside and outside of the plasmapause is a key parameter for radiation belt dynamics. One indirect measurement is through finding the velocity dispersion relation exhibited by lightning induced whistlers. The main difficulty of the method comes from low signal-to-noise ratios for most of the ground-based whistler components. To provide accurate electron density and L-shell measurements, whistler components need to be detectable in the noisy background, and their characteristics need to be reliably determined. For this reason precise segmentation is needed on a spectrogram image. Here we present a fully automated way to perform such an image segmentation by leveraging the power of convolutional neural networks, a state-of-the-art method for computer vision tasks. Testing the proposed method against a manually, and semi-manually segmented whistler dataset achieved <10% relative electron density prediction error for 80% of the segmented whistler traces, while for the L-shell, the relative error is <5% for 90% of the cases. By segmenting more than 1 million additional real whistler traces from Rothera station Antarctica, logged over 9 years, seasonal changes in the average electron density were found. The variations match previously published findings, and confirm the capabilities of the image segmentation technique
    corecore