157 research outputs found

    Multiancestry analysis of the HLA locus in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases uncovers a shared adaptive immune response mediated by HLA-DRB1*04 subtypes

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    Across multiancestry groups, we analyzed Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) associations in over 176,000 individuals with Parkinson‚Äôs disease (PD) and Alzheimer‚Äôs disease (AD) versus controls. We demonstrate that the two diseases share the same protective association at the HLA locus. HLA-specific fine-mapping showed that hierarchical protective effects of HLA-DRB1*04 subtypes best accounted for the association, strongest with HLA-DRB1*04:04 and HLA-DRB1*04:07, and intermediary with HLA-DRB1*04:01 and HLA-DRB1*04:03. The same signal was associated with decreased neurofibrillary tangles in postmortem brains and was associated with reduced tau levels in cerebrospinal fluid and to a lower extent with increased Aő≤42. Protective HLA-DRB1*04 subtypes strongly bound the aggregation-prone tau PHF6 sequence, however only when acetylated at a lysine (K311), a common posttranslational modification central to tau aggregation. An HLA-DRB1*04-mediated adaptive immune response decreases PD and AD risks, potentially by acting against tau, offering the possibility of therapeutic avenues

    Antidiabetic Drug Prescription Pattern in Hospitalized Older Patients with Diabetes

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    Objective: To describe the prescription pattern of antidiabetic and cardiovascular drugs in a cohort of hospitalized older patients with diabetes. Methods: Patients with diabetes aged 65 years or older hospitalized in internal medicine and/or geriatric wards throughout Italy and enrolled in the REPOSI (REgistro POliterapuie SIMI‚ÄĒSociet√† Italiana di Medicina Interna) registry from 2010 to 2019 and discharged alive were included. Results: Among 1703 patients with diabetes, 1433 (84.2%) were on treatment with at least one antidiabetic drug at hospital admission, mainly prescribed as monotherapy with insulin (28.3%) or metformin (19.2%). The proportion of treated patients decreased at discharge (N = 1309, 76.9%), with a significant reduction over time. Among those prescribed, the proportion of those with insulin alone increased over time (p = 0.0066), while the proportion of those prescribed sulfonylureas decreased (p < 0.0001). Among patients receiving antidiabetic therapy at discharge, 1063 (81.2%) were also prescribed cardiovascular drugs, mainly with an antihypertensive drug alone or in combination (N = 777, 73.1%). Conclusion: The management of older patients with diabetes in a hospital setting is often sub-optimal, as shown by the increasing trend in insulin at discharge, even if an overall improvement has been highlighted by the prevalent decrease in sulfonylureas prescription

    Prescription appropriateness of anti-diabetes drugs in elderly patients hospitalized in a clinical setting: evidence from the REPOSI Register

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    Diabetes is an increasing global health burden with the highest prevalence (24.0%) observed in elderly people. Older diabetic adults have a greater risk of hospitalization and several geriatric syndromes than older nondiabetic adults. For these conditions, special care is required in prescribing therapies including anti- diabetes drugs. Aim of this study was to evaluate the appropriateness and the adherence to safety recommendations in the prescriptions of glucose-lowering drugs in hospitalized elderly patients with diabetes. Data for this cross-sectional study were obtained from the REgistro POliterapie-Societ√† Italiana Medicina Interna (REPOSI) that collected clinical information on patients aged ‚Č• 65 years acutely admitted to Italian internal medicine and geriatric non-intensive care units (ICU) from 2010 up to 2019. Prescription appropriateness was assessed according to the 2019 AGS Beers Criteria and anti-diabetes drug data sheets.Among 5349 patients, 1624 (30.3%) had diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. At admission, 37.7% of diabetic patients received treatment with metformin, 37.3% insulin therapy, 16.4% sulfonylureas, and 11.4% glinides. Surprisingly, only 3.1% of diabetic patients were treated with new classes of anti- diabetes drugs. According to prescription criteria, at admission 15.4% of patients treated with metformin and 2.6% with sulfonylureas received inappropriately these treatments. At discharge, the inappropriateness of metformin therapy decreased (10.2%, P < 0.0001). According to Beers criteria, the inappropriate prescriptions of sulfonylureas raised to 29% both at admission and at discharge. This study shows a poor adherence to current guidelines on diabetes management in hospitalized elderly people with a high prevalence of inappropriate use of sulfonylureas according to the Beers criteria

    Nat Commun

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    Genetic discoveries of Alzheimer's disease are the drivers of our understanding, and together with polygenetic risk stratification can contribute towards planning of feasible and efficient preventive and curative clinical trials. We first perform a large genetic association study by merging all available case-control datasets and by-proxy study results (discovery n = 409,435 and validation size n = 58,190). Here, we add six variants associated with Alzheimer's disease risk (near APP, CHRNE, PRKD3/NDUFAF7, PLCG2 and two exonic variants in the SHARPIN gene). Assessment of the polygenic risk score and stratifying by APOE reveal a 4 to 5.5 years difference in median age at onset of Alzheimer's disease patients in APOE …õ4 carriers. Because of this study, the underlying mechanisms of APP can be studied to refine the amyloid cascade and the polygenic risk score provides a tool to select individuals at high risk of Alzheimer's disease

    Clinical features and outcomes of elderly hospitalised patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart failure or both

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    Background and objective: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and heart failure (HF) mutually increase the risk of being present in the same patient, especially if older. Whether or not this coexistence may be associated with a worse prognosis is debated. Therefore, employing data derived from the REPOSI register, we evaluated the clinical features and outcomes in a population of elderly patients admitted to internal medicine wards and having COPD, HF or COPD + HF. Methods: We measured socio-demographic and anthropometric characteristics, severity and prevalence of comorbidities, clinical and laboratory features during hospitalization, mood disorders, functional independence, drug prescriptions and discharge destination. The primary study outcome was the risk of death. Results: We considered 2,343 elderly hospitalized patients (median age 81 years), of whom 1,154 (49%) had COPD, 813 (35%) HF, and 376 (16%) COPD + HF. Patients with COPD + HF had different characteristics than those with COPD or HF, such as a higher prevalence of previous hospitalizations, comorbidities (especially chronic kidney disease), higher respiratory rate at admission and number of prescribed drugs. Patients with COPD + HF (hazard ratio HR 1.74, 95% confidence intervals CI 1.16-2.61) and patients with dementia (HR 1.75, 95% CI 1.06-2.90) had a higher risk of death at one year. The Kaplan-Meier curves showed a higher mortality risk in the group of patients with COPD + HF for all causes (p = 0.010), respiratory causes (p = 0.006), cardiovascular causes (p = 0.046) and respiratory plus cardiovascular causes (p = 0.009). Conclusion: In this real-life cohort of hospitalized elderly patients, the coexistence of COPD and HF significantly worsened prognosis at one year. This finding may help to better define the care needs of this population

    Chasing the Zebra: a case of membranous-like Glomerulopathy with SSA/RO52 deposits and no overt connective tissue disease

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    Abstract Background The nature of the deposits in immune-mediated glomerulonephritis with a membranous pattern and masked IgG-Kappa deposits (MGMID) remains still to be elucidated. Case presentation We present a case of 33-year-old woman developing a continuous asymptomatic proteinuria (0.8‚Äď1¬†g/24¬†h)¬†with no overt connective tissue diseases. She tested positive at high titers for SSA¬†antibodies (Ro52 838 UI/mL, Ro60 2716 UI/mL) and at the kidney¬†biopsy histological findings were compatible with an immune-mediated glomerulonephritis with a membranous pattern and masked IgG-Kappa deposits. Also, we demonstrated a positive immunohistochemistry staining for anti-Ro52-SSA antibodies, with a granular positivity in mesangium and along rare glomerular capillaries. To date,¬†only one case of a patient with overt diagnosis of Sj√∂gren‚Äôs syndrome with MGMID has been described but a pathogenic role for SSA and SSB antibodies has never been proven. Conclusions In this case,¬†we described for the first time by immunohistochemistry a Ro52+¬†granular positivity in the¬†mesangium and glomerular capillaries, potentially paving the way for a better understanding of MGMID

    Clinical features and outcomes of elderly hospitalised patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart failure or both

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    Background and objective: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and heart failure (HF) mutually increase the risk of being present in the same patient, especially if older. Whether or not this coexistence may be associated with a worse prognosis is debated. Therefore, employing data derived from the REPOSI register, we evaluated the clinical features and outcomes in a population of elderly patients admitted to internal medicine wards and having COPD, HF or COPD‚ÄČ+‚ÄČHF. Methods: We measured socio-demographic and anthropometric characteristics, severity and prevalence of comorbidities, clinical and laboratory features during hospitalization, mood disorders, functional independence, drug prescriptions and discharge destination. The primary study outcome was the risk of death. Results: We considered 2,343 elderly hospitalized patients (median age 81 years), of whom 1,154 (49%) had COPD, 813 (35%) HF, and 376 (16%) COPD‚ÄČ+‚ÄČHF. Patients with COPD‚ÄČ+‚ÄČHF had different characteristics than those with COPD or HF, such as a higher prevalence of previous hospitalizations, comorbidities (especially chronic kidney disease), higher respiratory rate at admission and number of prescribed drugs. Patients with COPD‚ÄČ+‚ÄČHF (hazard ratio HR 1.74, 95% confidence intervals CI 1.16-2.61) and patients with dementia (HR 1.75, 95% CI 1.06-2.90) had a higher risk of death at one year. The Kaplan-Meier curves showed a higher mortality risk in the group of patients with COPD‚ÄČ+‚ÄČHF for all causes (p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.010), respiratory causes (p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.006), cardiovascular causes (p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.046) and respiratory plus cardiovascular causes (p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.009). Conclusion: In this real-life cohort of hospitalized elderly patients, the coexistence of COPD and HF significantly worsened prognosis at one year. This finding may help to better define the care needs of this population

    Clinical-Pathological Characteristics of Renal Injuries Identify Different Clusters in Patients With Antiphospholipid Antibodies

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    IntroductionSignificant heterogeneity still exists in the nomenclature of renal involvement in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS).MethodsWe applied a hierarchical cluster analysis to determine subgroups of patients according to clinical, laboratory, and renal histology characteristics in a cohort of subjects with confirmed antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) positivity and biopsy proven aPL-related renal injuries. Kidney outcomes were then assessed at 12 months.ResultsA total of 123 aPL-positive patients were included in the study (101 [82%] female, 109 [88.6%] with systemic lupus erythematosus [SLE], 14 (11.4%) with primary APS [PAPS]). Three clusters were identified. Twenty-three patients (18.7%) were included in the first cluster (cluster 1), characterized by a higher prevalence of glomerular capillary and arteriolar thrombi and fragmented red blood cells in the subendothelial space. Cluster 2 included 33 patients (26.8%) and showed a higher prevalence of fibromyointimal proliferative lesions as seen in hyperplastic vasculopathy. Cluster 3 was the largest (67 patients, mainly with SLE) and was characterized by higher prevalence of subendothelial edema, of both glomerular capillaries and arterioles.ConclusionThree different clusters of patients with aPL and renal injuries emerged from our study as follows: the first, with the worst renal prognosis, was associated with features of thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), thrombosis, triple aPL positivity and higher adjusted Global APS Score (aGAPSS) values; the second, characterized by hyperplastic vasculopathy with an intermediate prognosis, was seen more frequently in patients with cerebrovascular manifestations; and the third, more benign in terms of outcomes and with no overt association with thrombotic features, was characterized by endothelial swelling in concomitant lupus nephritis (LN)
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