35 research outputs found

    Impact of precursor-derived peracetic acid on post-weaning diarrhea , intestinal microbiota and predicted microbial functional genes in weaned pigs

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    Post-weaning diarrhea affects piglets in the nursery phase of production, leading to a substantial impact both at the farm and financial levels. The multifactorial etiology of this disease includes housing conditions, pig genetics, microbial composition, and metagenomic assets. Among the common therapeutic approaches, the widely used zinc oxide underwent a European Union ban in 2022 due to its negative environmental impact and correlation to increased antimicrobial resistance. During this study, we have tested two levels of inclusion of the potential antimicrobial alternative peracetic acid, delivered in water via the hydrolysis of the precursors sodium percarbonate and tetraacetylethylenediamine, in comparison to zinc oxide and an untreated control during a 2-week animal study. We assessed the microbial composition and predicted the metagenome, together with performance and physiological parameters, in order to describe the microbial functional role in etiopathology. Both zinc oxide and peracetic acid resulted in amelioration of the diarrheal status by the end of the trial period, with noticeable zinc oxide effects visible from the first week. This was accompanied by improved performance when compared to the first-week figures and a decreased stomach pH in both peracetic acid levels. A significant reduction in both stomach and caecal Proteobacteria was recorded in the zinc oxide group, and a significant reduction of Campylobacter in the stomach was reported for both zinc oxide and one of the peracetic acid concentrations. Among other functional differences, we found that the predicted ortholog for the zonula occludens toxin, a virulence factor present in pathogens like Escherichia coli and Campylobacter jejuni, was less abundant in the stomach of treated pigs compared to the control group. In water, peracetic acid delivered via precursor hydrolysis has the potential to be a valid intervention, an alternative to antimicrobial, to assist the weaning of piglets. Our findings support the view that post-weaning diarrhea is a complex multifactorial disease with an important metagenomic component characterized by the differential abundance of specific predicted orthologs and microbial genera in the stomach and caecum of pigs

    Impact of precursor-derived peracetic acid on post-weaning diarrhea , intestinal microbiota and predicted microbial functional genes in weaned pigs

    Get PDF
    Post-weaning diarrhea affects piglets in the nursery phase of production, leading to a substantial impact both at the farm and financial levels. The multifactorial etiology of this disease includes housing conditions, pig genetics, microbial composition, and metagenomic assets. Among the common therapeutic approaches, the widely used zinc oxide underwent a European Union ban in 2022 due to its negative environmental impact and correlation to increased antimicrobial resistance. During this study, we have tested two levels of inclusion of the potential antimicrobial alternative peracetic acid, delivered in water via the hydrolysis of the precursors sodium percarbonate and tetraacetylethylenediamine, in comparison to zinc oxide and an untreated control during a 2-week animal study. We assessed the microbial composition and predicted the metagenome, together with performance and physiological parameters, in order to describe the microbial functional role in etiopathology. Both zinc oxide and peracetic acid resulted in amelioration of the diarrheal status by the end of the trial period, with noticeable zinc oxide effects visible from the first week. This was accompanied by improved performance when compared to the first-week figures and a decreased stomach pH in both peracetic acid levels. A significant reduction in both stomach and caecal Proteobacteria was recorded in the zinc oxide group, and a significant reduction of Campylobacter in the stomach was reported for both zinc oxide and one of the peracetic acid concentrations. Among other functional differences, we found that the predicted ortholog for the zonula occludens toxin, a virulence factor present in pathogens like Escherichia coli and Campylobacter jejuni, was less abundant in the stomach of treated pigs compared to the control group. In water, peracetic acid delivered via precursor hydrolysis has the potential to be a valid intervention, an alternative to antimicrobial, to assist the weaning of piglets. Our findings support the view that post-weaning diarrhea is a complex multifactorial disease with an important metagenomic component characterized by the differential abundance of specific predicted orthologs and microbial genera in the stomach and caecum of pigs

    Ecology, not host phylogeny, shapes the oral microbiome in closely related species

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    Host-associated microbiomes are essential for a multitude of biological processes. Placed at the contact zone between external and internal environments, the little-studied oral microbiome has important roles in host physiology and health. Here, we investigate the roles of host evolutionary relationships and ecology in shaping the oral microbiome in three closely related gorilla subspecies (mountain, Grauer's, and western lowland gorillas) using shotgun metagenomics of 46 museum-preserved dental calculus samples. We find that the oral microbiomes of mountain gorillas are functionally and taxonomically distinct from the other two subspecies, despite close evolutionary relationships and geographic proximity with Grauer's gorillas. Grauer's gorillas show intermediate bacterial taxonomic and functional, and dietary profiles. Altitudinal differences in gorilla subspecies ranges appear to explain these patterns, suggesting a close connection between dental calculus microbiomes and the environment, likely mediated through diet. This is further supported by the presence of gorilla subspecies-specific phyllosphere/rhizosphere taxa in the oral microbiome. Mountain gorillas show a high abundance of nitrate-reducing oral taxa, which may promote adaptation to a high-altitude lifestyle by modulating blood pressure. Our results suggest that ecology, rather than evolutionary relationships and geographic distribution, shape the oral microbiome in these closely related species

    Act now against new NHS competition regulations: an open letter to the BMA and the Academy of Medical Royal Colleges calls on them to make a joint public statement of opposition to the amended section 75 regulations.

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    Adjunctive rifampicin for Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (ARREST): a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

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    BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia is a common cause of severe community-acquired and hospital-acquired infection worldwide. We tested the hypothesis that adjunctive rifampicin would reduce bacteriologically confirmed treatment failure or disease recurrence, or death, by enhancing early S aureus killing, sterilising infected foci and blood faster, and reducing risks of dissemination and metastatic infection. METHODS: In this multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, adults (≄18 years) with S aureus bacteraemia who had received ≀96 h of active antibiotic therapy were recruited from 29 UK hospitals. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) via a computer-generated sequential randomisation list to receive 2 weeks of adjunctive rifampicin (600 mg or 900 mg per day according to weight, oral or intravenous) versus identical placebo, together with standard antibiotic therapy. Randomisation was stratified by centre. Patients, investigators, and those caring for the patients were masked to group allocation. The primary outcome was time to bacteriologically confirmed treatment failure or disease recurrence, or death (all-cause), from randomisation to 12 weeks, adjudicated by an independent review committee masked to the treatment. Analysis was intention to treat. This trial was registered, number ISRCTN37666216, and is closed to new participants. FINDINGS: Between Dec 10, 2012, and Oct 25, 2016, 758 eligible participants were randomly assigned: 370 to rifampicin and 388 to placebo. 485 (64%) participants had community-acquired S aureus infections, and 132 (17%) had nosocomial S aureus infections. 47 (6%) had meticillin-resistant infections. 301 (40%) participants had an initial deep infection focus. Standard antibiotics were given for 29 (IQR 18-45) days; 619 (82%) participants received flucloxacillin. By week 12, 62 (17%) of participants who received rifampicin versus 71 (18%) who received placebo experienced treatment failure or disease recurrence, or died (absolute risk difference -1·4%, 95% CI -7·0 to 4·3; hazard ratio 0·96, 0·68-1·35, p=0·81). From randomisation to 12 weeks, no evidence of differences in serious (p=0·17) or grade 3-4 (p=0·36) adverse events were observed; however, 63 (17%) participants in the rifampicin group versus 39 (10%) in the placebo group had antibiotic or trial drug-modifying adverse events (p=0·004), and 24 (6%) versus six (2%) had drug interactions (p=0·0005). INTERPRETATION: Adjunctive rifampicin provided no overall benefit over standard antibiotic therapy in adults with S aureus bacteraemia. FUNDING: UK National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment

    Therapeutic targeting of cathepsin C::from pathophysiology to treatment

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    Cathepsin C (CatC) is a highly conserved tetrameric lysosomal cysteine dipeptidyl aminopeptidase. The best characterized physiological function of CatC is the activation of pro-inflammatory granule-associated serine proteases. These proteases are synthesized as inactive zymogens containing an N-terminal pro-dipeptide, which maintains the zymogen in its inactive conformation and prevents premature activation, which is potentially toxic to the cell. The activation of serine protease zymogens occurs through cleavage of the N-terminal dipeptide by CatC during cell maturation in the bone marrow. In vivo data suggest that pharmacological inhibition of pro-inflammatory serine proteases would suppress or attenuate deleterious effects of inflammatory/auto-immune disorders mediated by these proteases. The pathological deficiency in CatC is associated with Papillon-LefĂšvre syndrome. The patients however do not present marked immunodeficiency despite the absence of active serine proteases in immune defense cells. Hence, the transitory pharmacological blockade of CatC activity in the precursor cells of the bone marrow may represent an attractive therapeutic strategy to regulate activity of serine proteases in inflammatory and immunologic conditions. A variety of CatC inhibitors have been developed both by pharmaceutical companies and academic investigators, some of which are currently being employed and evaluated in preclinical/clinical trials
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