2,710 research outputs found

    Создание системы управления электродвигателем на базе микроконтроллера STM32

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    Объектом исследования является система управления электродвигателем на базе микроконтроллера STM32. В работе рассмотрены компоненты системы управления. Рассмотрено программное обеспечение для программирования микроконтроллера STM32, а также протоколы обмена данными UART и Modbus. Показаны этапы создания сопрягающего устройства между диспетчерской станцией и преобразователем частоты. Проведено тестирование и отладка сопрягающего устройства. Результатом выполненной работы является созданное сопрягающее устройство, осуществляющее обмен данными между диспетчерской станцией и преобразователем частоты.The object of the study is the motor control system based on the STM32 microcontroller. The paper considers the components of the control system. The software for programming of the STM32 microcontroller, as well as the UART and Modbus data exchange protocols are considered. The stages of creation of the interface device between the dispatching station and the frequency converter are shown. The testing and debugging of the coupling device was carried out. The result of the performed work is the created coupling device, which performs data exchange between the dispatching station and the frequency converter

    Scaling violations of quark and gluon jet fragmentation functions in e+e- annihilations at sqrt(s) = 91.2 and 183-209 GeV

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    Flavour inclusive, udsc and b fragmentation functions in unbiased jets, and flavour inclusive, udsc, b and gluon fragmentation functions in biased jets are measured in e+e- annihilations from data collected at centre-of-mass energies of 91.2, and 183-209 GeV with the OPAL detector at LEP. The unbiased jets are defined by hemispheres of inclusive hadronic events, while the biased jet measurements are based on three-jet events selected with jet algorithms. Several methods are employed to extract the fragmentation functions over a wide range of scales. Possible biases are studied in the results are obtained. The fragmentation functions are compared to results from lower energy e+e- experiments and with earlier LEP measurements and are found to be consistent. Scaling violations are observed and are found to be stronger for the fragmentation functions of gluon jets than for those of quarks. The measured fragmentation functions are compared to three recent theoretical next-to-leading order calculations and to the predictions of three Monte Carlo event generators. While the Monte Carlo models are in good agreement with the data, the theoretical predictions fail to describe the full set of results, in particular the b and gluon jet measurements.Comment: 46 pages, 17 figures, Submitted to Eur. Phys J.

    Tests of model of color reconnection and a search for glueballs using gluon jets with a rapidity gap

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    Gluon jets with a mean energy of 22 GeV and purity of 95% are selected from hadronic Z0 decay events produced in e+e- annihilations. A subsample of these jets is identified which exhibits a large gap in the rapidity distribution of particles within the jet. After imposing the requirement of a rapidity gap, the gluon jet purity is 86%. These jets are observed to demonstrate a high degree of sensitivity to the presence of color reconnection, i.e. higher order QCD processes affecting the underlying color structure. We use our data to test three QCD models which include a simulation of color reconnection: one in the Ariadne Monte Carlo, one in the Herwig Monte Carlo, and the other by Rathsman in the Pythia Monte Carlo. We find the Rathsman and Ariadne color reconnection models can describe our gluon jet measurements only if very large values are used for the cutoff parameters which serve to terminate the parton showers, and that the description of inclusive Z0 data is significantly degraded in this case. We conclude that color reconnection as implemented by these two models is disfavored. The signal from the Herwig color reconnection model is less clear and we do not obtain a definite conclusion concerning this model. In a separate study, we follow recent theoretical suggestions and search for glueball-like objects in the leading part of the gluon jets. No clear evidence is observed for these objects.Comment: 42 pages, 18 figure

    W Boson Polarisation at LEP2

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    Elements of the spin density matrix for W bosons in e+e- -> W+W- -> qqln events are measured from data recorded by the OPAL detector at LEP. This information is used calculate polarised differential cross-sections and to search for CP-violating effects. Results are presented for W bosons produced in e+e- collisions with centre-of-mass energies between 183 GeV and 209 GeV. The average fraction of W bosons that are longitudinally polarised is found to be (23.9 +- 2.1 +- 1.1)% compared to a Standard Model prediction of (23.9 +- 0.1)%. All results are consistent with CP conservation.Comment: 20 pages, 3 figures, Submitted to Phys. Letts.

    Search for Yukawa Production of a Light Neutral Higgs Boson at LEP

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    Within a Two-Higgs-Doublet Model (2HDM) a search for a light Higgs boson in the mass range of 4-12 GeV has been performed in the Yukawa process e+e- -> b bbar A/h -> b bbar tau+tau-, using the data collected by the OPAL detector at LEP between 1992 and 1995 in e+e- collisions at about 91 GeV centre-of-mass energy. A likelihood selection is applied to separate background and signal. The number of observed events is in good agreement with the expected background. Within a CP-conserving 2HDM type II model the cross-section for Yukawa production depends on xiAd = |tan beta| and xihd = |sin alpha/cos beta| for the production of the CP-odd A and the CP-even h, respectively, where tan beta is the ratio of the vacuum expectation values of the Higgs doublets and alpha is the mixing angle between the neutral CP-even Higgs bosons. From our data 95% C.L. upper limits are derived for xiAd within the range of 8.5 to 13.6 and for xihd between 8.2 to 13.7, depending on the mass of the Higgs boson, assuming a branching fraction into tau+tau- of 100%. An interpretation of the limits within a 2HDM type II model with Standard Model particle content is given. These results impose constraints on several models that have been proposed to explain the recent BNL measurement of the muon anomalous magnetic moment.Comment: 24 pages, 9 figures, Submitted to Euro. Phys. J.

    A study of charm production in beauty decays with the OPAL detector at LEP

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    Using an inclusive method, BR(b -> D\bar{D}X) has been measured in hadronic Z^0 decays with the OPAL detector at LEP. The impact parameter significance of tracks opposite tagged b-jets is used to differentiate b -> D\bar{D}X decays from other decays. Using this result, the average number of charm and anti-charm quarks produced per beauty quark decay, n_c, is determined.Comment: 20 pages, 4 figure

    Measurement of the Hadronic Cross-Section for the Scattering of Two Virtual Photons at LEP

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    The interaction of virtual photons is investigated using the reaction e+e- -> e+e- hadrons based on data taken by the OPAL experiment at e+e- centre-of-mass energies sqrt(s_ee)=189-209 GeV, for W>5 GeV and at an average Q^2 of 17.9 GeV^2. The measured cross-sections are compared to predictions of the Quark Parton Model (QPM), to the Leading Order QCD Monte Carlo model PHOJET to the NLO prediction for the reaction e+e- -> e+e-qqbar, and to BFKL calculations. PHOJET, NLO e+e- -> e+e-qqbar, and QPM describe the data reasonably well, whereas the cross-section predicted by a Leading Order BFKL calculation is too large.Comment: 30 pages, 10 figures, Submitted to Eur.Phys.J.

    Measurement of triple gauge boson couplings from WW production at LEP energies up to 189 GeV

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    A measurement of triple gauge boson couplings is presented, based on W-pair data recorded by the OPAL detector at LEP during 1998 at a centre-of-mass energy of 189 GeV with an integrated luminosity of 183 pb^-1. After combining with our previous measurements at centre-of-mass energies of 161-183 GeV we obtain k_g=0.97 +0.20 -0.16, g_1^z=0.991 +0.060 -0.057 and lambda_g=-0.110 +0.058 -0.055, where the errors include both statistical and systematic uncertainties and each coupling is determined by setting the other two couplings to their SM values. These results are consistent with the Standard Model expectations.Comment: 28 pages, 8 figures, submitted to Eur. Phys. J.

    Search for Neutral Higgs Bosons in e+e- Collisions at sqrt(s) ~189GeV

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    A search for neutral Higgs bosons has been performed with the OPAL detector at LEP, using approximately 170 pb-1 of e+e- collision data collected at sqrt(s)~189GeV. Searches have been performed for the Standard Model (SM) process e+e- to H0Z0 and the MSSM processes e+e- to H0Z0, A0h0. The searches are sensitive to the b b-bar and tau antitau decay modes of the Higgs bosons, and also to the MSSM decay mode h0 to A0A0. OPAL search results at lower centre-of-mass energies have been incorporated in the limits we set, which are valid at the 95% confidence level. For the SM Higgs boson, we obtain a lower mass bound of 91.0 GeV. In the MSSM, our limits are mh>74.8GeV and mA>76.5GeV, assuming tan(beta)>1, that the mixing of the scalar top quarks is either zero or maximal, and that the soft SUSY-breaking masses are 1 TeV. For the case of zero scalar top mixing, we exclude values of tan(beta) between 0.72 and 2.19.Comment: 38 pages, 15 figures, submitted Euro. Phys. J.

    A Measurement of Semileptonic B Decays to Narrow Orbitally-Excited Charm Mesons

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    The decay chain b -> Bbar -> D^{**0} l nu X, D^{**0} -> D^{*+} pi^-, D^{*+} -> D^0 pi^+, D^0 ->(Kpi or K3pi) is identified in a sample of 3.9 million hadronic Z decays collected with the OPAL detector at LEP. The branching ratio BR (b -> Bbar) x BR (Bbar -> D^0_1 l nu X) x BR (D^0_1 -> D^{*+} pi^-) is measured to be (2.64 +- 0.79 (stat) +- 0.39 (syst)) X 10^-3 for the J^P = 1^+ (D^0_1) state. For decays into the J^P = 2^+ (D^{*0}_2) state, an upper limit of 1.4 X 10^-3 is placed on the branching ratio at the 95% confidence level.Comment: 20 pages, 6 figure
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