54 research outputs found

    Rational development of stabilized cyclic disulfide redox probes and bioreductive prodrugs to target dithiol oxidoreductases

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    Countless biological processes allow cells to develop, survive, and proliferate. Among these, tightly balanced regulatory enzymatic pathways that can respond rapidly to external impacts maintain dynamic physiological homeostasis. More specifically, redox homeostasis broadly affects cellular metabolism and proliferation, with major contributions by thiol/disulfide oxidoreductase systems, in particular, the Thioredoxin Reductase Thioredoxin (TrxR/Trx) and the Glutathione Reductase-Glutathione-Glutaredoxin (GR/GSH/Grx) systems. These cascades drive vital cellular functions in many ways through signaling, regulating other proteins' activity by redox switches, and by stoichiometric reductant transfers in metabolism and antioxidant systems. Increasing evidence argues that there is a persistent alteration of the redox environment in certain pathological states, such as cancer, that heavily involve the Trx system: upregulation and/or overactivity of the Trx system may support or drive cancer progression, making both TrxR and Trx promising targets for anti-cancer drug development. Understanding the biochemical mechanisms and connections between certain redox cascades requires research tools that interact with them. The state-of-the-art genetic tools are mostly ratiometric reporters that measure reduced:oxidized ratios of selected redox pairs or the general thiol pool. However, the precise cellular roles of the central oxidoreductase systems, including TrxR and Trx, remain inaccessible due to the lack of probes to selectively measure turnover by either of these proteins. However, such probes would allow measuring their effective reductive activity apart from expression levels in native systems, including in cells, animals, or patient samples. They are also of high interest to identify chemical inhibitors for TrxR/Trx in cells and to validate their potential use as anti-cancer agents (to date, there is no selective cellular Trx inhibitor, and most known TrxR inhibitors were not comprehensively evaluated considering selectivity and potential off-targets). However, small molecule redox imaging tools are underdeveloped: their protein specificity, spectral properties, and applicability remain poorly precedented. This work aimed to address this opportunity gap and develop novel, small molecule diagnostic and therapeutic tools to selectively target the Trx system based on a modular trigger cargo design: artificial cyclic disulfide substrates (trigger) for oxidoreductases are tethered to molecular agents (cargo) such that the cargo’s activity is masked and is re-established only through reduction by a target protein. The rational design of these novel reduction sensors to target the cell's strongest disulfide-reducing enzymes was driven by the following principles: (i) cyclic disulfide triggers with stabilized ring systems were used to gain low reduction potentials that should resist reduction except by the strongest cellular reductases, such as Trx; and (ii) the cyclic topology also offers the potential for kinetic reversibility that should select for dithiol-type redox proteins over the cellular monothiol background. Creating imaging agents based on such two-component designs to selectively measure redox protein activity in native cells required to combine the correct trigger reducibility, probe activation kinetics, and imaging modalities and to consider the overall molecular architecture. The major prior art in this field has applied cyclic 5-membered disulfides (1,2 dithiolanes) as substrates for TrxR in a similar way to create such tools. However, this motif was described elsewhere as thermodynamically instable and was due to widely used for dynamic covalent cascade reactions. By comparing a novel 1,2 dithiolane-based probe to the state-of-the-art probes, including commercial TrxR sensors, by screening a conclusive assay panel of cellular TrxR modulations, I clarified that 1,2 dithiolanes are not selective substrates for TrxR in biological settings (Nat Commun 2022). Instead, aiming for more stable ring systems and thus more robust redox probes, during this work, I developed bicyclic 6 membered disulfides (piperidine fused 1,2 dithianes) with remarkably low reduction potentials. I showed that molecular probes using them as reduction sensors can be mostly processed by thioredoxins while being stable against reduction by GSH. The thermodynamically stabilized decalin like topology of the cis-annelated 1,2 dithianes requires particularly strong reductants to be cleaved. They also select for dithiol type redox proteins, like Trx, based on kinetic reversibility and offer fast cyclization due to the preorganization by annelation (JACS 2021). This work further expanded the system’s modularity with structural cores based on piperazine-fused 1,2 dithianes with the two amines allowing independent derivatization. Diagnostic tools using them as reduction sensors proved equally robust but with highly improved activation kinetics and were thus cellularly activated. Cellular studies evolved that they are substrates for both Trxs and their protein cousins Grxs, so measuring the cellular dithiol protein pool rather than solely Trx activity (preprint 2023). Finally, a trigger based on a slightly adapted reduction sensor, a desymmetrized 1,2 thiaselenane, was designed for selective reduction by TrxR’s selenol/thiol active site, then combined with a precipitating large Stokes’ shift fluorophore and a solubilizing group, to evolve the first selective probe RX1 to measure cellular TrxR activity, which even allowed high throughput inhibitor screening (Chem 2022). The central principle of this work was further advanced to therapeutic prodrugs based on the duocarmycin cargo (CBI) with tunable potency (JACS Au 2022) that can be used to create off-to-on therapeutic prodrugs. Such CBI prodrugs employing stabilized 1,2 dichalcogenide triggers proved to be cytotoxins that depend on Trx system activity in cells. They could further be exploited for cell-line dependent reductase activity profiling by screening their redox activation indices, the reduction-dependent part of total prodrug activation, in 177 cell lines. Beyond that, these prodrugs were well-tolerated in animals and showed anti-cancer efficacy in vivo in two distinct mouse tumor models (preprint 2022). Taken together, I introduced unique monothiol-resistant reducible motifs to target the cellular Trx system with chemocompatible units for each for TrxR and Trx/Grx, where the cyclic nature of the dichalcogenides avoids activation by GSH. By using them with distinct molecular cargos, I developed novel selective fluorescent reporter probes; and introduced a new class of bioreductive therapeutic constructs based on a common modular design. These were either applied to selectively measure cellular reductase activity or to deliver cytotoxic anti cancer agents in vivo. Ongoing work aims to differentiate between the two major redox effector proteins Trx and Grx, requiring additional layers of selectivity that may be addressed by tuned molecular recognition. The flexible use of various molecular cargos allows harnessing the same cellular redox machinery by either probes or prodrugs. This allows predictive conclusions from diagnostics to be directly translated into therapy and offers great potential for future adaptation to other enzyme classes and therapeutic venues.Die zellulĂ€re Redox-Homöostase hĂ€ngt von Thiol/Disulfid-Oxidoreduktasen ab, die den Stoffwechsel, die Proliferation und die antioxidative Antwort von Zellen beeinflussen. Die wichtigsten Netzwerke sind die Thioredoxin Reduktase-Thioredoxin (TrxR/Trx) und Glutathion Reduktase-Glutathion-Glutaredoxin (GR/GSH/Grx) Systeme, die ĂŒber Redox-Schalter in Substratproteinen lebenswichtige zellulĂ€re Funktionen steuern und so an der Redox-Regulation und -SignalĂŒbertragung beteiligt sind. Persistente VerĂ€nderungen des Redoxmilieus in pathologischen ZustĂ€nden, wie z. B. bei Krebs, sind in hohem Maße mit dem Trx-System verbunden. Eine Hochregulierung und/oder ÜberaktivitĂ€t des Trx-Systems, die bei vielen Krebsarten auftreten, unterstĂŒtzt zudem das Fortschreiten des Krebswachstums, was TrxR/Trx zu vielversprechenden Zielproteinen fĂŒr die Entwicklung neuer Krebsmedikamente macht. Um die biochemischen Prozesse dahinter zu erforschen, sind spezielle Techniken zur Visualisierung und Messung enzymatischer AktivitĂ€t nötig. Die hierzu geeigneten, meist genetischen Sensoren messen ratiometrisch das VerhĂ€ltnis reduzierter/oxidierter Spezies in zellulĂ€rem Umfeld oder spezifisch ausgewĂ€hlte Redoxpaare. Die weitere Erforschung der exakten Funktion von TrxR/Trx und deren Substrate ist jedoch durch mangelnde Nachweismethoden limitiert. Diese sind außerdem zur Validierung chemischer Hemmstoffe fĂŒr TrxR/Trx in Zellen und deren potenziellen Verwendung als Krebsmittel von großem Interesse. Bislang gibt es keinen selektiven zellulĂ€ren Trx-Inhibitor und potenzielle Off-Target-Effekte der bekannten TrxR-Inhibitoren wurden nicht abschließend bewertet. Ziel dieser Arbeit ist die Entwicklung niedermolekularer, diagnostischer und therapeutischer Werkzeuge, die selektiv auf das Trx-System abzielen und auf einem modularen Trigger-Cargo Design basieren. Hierzu werden zyklische Disulfid-Substrate (Trigger) fĂŒr Oxidoreduktasen so mit molekularen Wirkstoffen (Cargo) verknĂŒpft, dass dabei die WirkstoffaktivitĂ€t maskiert, und erst nach Reduktion durch ein Zielprotein wiederhergestellt wird. Diese neuartigen, synthetischen Reduktionssensoren basieren auf den folgenden Grundprinzipien: (i) Zyklische Disulfide sind thermodynamisch stabilisiert und können nur durch die stĂ€rksten Reduktasen gespalten werden; und (ii) die zyklische Topologie ermöglicht die kinetische ReversibilitĂ€t der zwei Thiol-Disulfid-Austauschreaktionen, die eine erste Reaktion mit Monothiolen, wie z. B. GSH, sofort umkehrt und so eine vollstĂ€ndige Reduktion verhindert. Die meisten frĂŒheren Arbeiten auf diesem Gebiet verwendeten ein zyklisches, fĂŒnfgliedriges Disulfid (1,2 Dithiolan) als Substrat fĂŒr TrxR. Das gleiche Strukturmotiv wurde jedoch an anderer Stelle als thermodynamisch instabil beschrieben und aufgrund dieser Eigenschaft explizit fĂŒr dynamische Kaskadenreaktionen verwendet. Deshalb vergleicht diese Arbeit zu Beginn einen neuen 1,2 Dithiolan basierten fluorogenen Indikator mit bestehenden, z. T. kommerziellen, Redox Sonden fĂŒr TrxR in einer Reihe von Zellkultur-Experimenten unter Modulation der zellulĂ€ren TrxR AktivitĂ€t und stellt so einen Widerspruch in der Literatur klar: 1,2 Dithiolane eignen sich nicht als selektive Substrate fĂŒr TrxR, da sie labil sowohl gegen die Reduktion durch andere Redoxproteine, als auch gegen den Monothiol Hintergrund in Zellen sind (Nat. Commun. 2022). Als alternatives Strukturmotiv wird in dieser Arbeit ein bizyklisches sechsgliedriges Disulfid (anneliertes 1,2 Dithian) etabliert. Durch sein niedriges Reduktionspotenzial, also seine hohe Resistenz gegen Reduktion, werden molekulare Sonden basierend auf diesem 1,2 Dithian als Reduktionssensor fast ausschließlich von Trx aktiviert, nicht aber von TrxR oder GSH (JACS 2021). Dieses Kernmotiv bestimmt dabei die Reduzierbarkeit, und damit die EnzymspezifitĂ€t, durch seine zyklische Natur und die Annelierung, auch unter Verwendung unterschiedlicher Farb-/Wirkstoffe. Auf dieser Grundlage konnte die molekulare Struktur durch einen weiteren Modifikationspunkt fĂŒr die flexible Verwendung weiterer funktioneller Einheiten ergĂ€nzt werden. Obwohl zellulĂ€re Studien ergaben, dass diese neuartigen 1,2 Dithian Einheiten in Zellen sowohl Trx als auch das strukturell verwandte Grx adressieren, sind die daraus resultierenden diagnostischen MolekĂŒle wertvoll, um den katalytischen Umsatz zellulĂ€rer Dithiol-Reduktasen, der sogenannten Trx Superfamilie, selektiv anzuzeigen (Preprint 2023). BegĂŒnstigt durch das modulare MolekĂŒldesign stellt diese Arbeit zudem das erste Reportersystem RX1 zum selektiven Nachweis der TrxR-AktivitĂ€t in Zellen vor. Es basiert auf der Verwendung eines zyklischen, unsymmetrischen Selenenylsulfid-Sensors (1,2 Thiaselenan), der selektiv von dem einzigartigen Selenolat der TrxR angegriffen wird, und dadurch letztlich nur von TrxR reduziert werden kann. RX1 eignete sich zudem fĂŒr eine Hochdurchsatz-Validierung bestehender TrxR Inhibitoren und unterstreicht dadurch den kommerziellen Nutzen derartiger Diagnostika (Chem 2022). Das zentrale Trigger-Cargo Konzept dieser Arbeit wurde fĂŒr therapeutische Zwecke weiterentwickelt und nutzt dabei den einzigartigen Wirkmechanismus der Duocarmycin-Naturstoffklasse (CBI) (JACS Au 2022) zur Entwicklung reduktiv aktivierbarer Therapeutika. CBI Prodrugs basierend auf stabilisierten Redox-Schaltern (1,2 Dithiane fĂŒr Trx; 1,2 Thiaselenan fĂŒr TrxR) reagierten signifikant auf TrxR-Modulation in Zellen. Sie wurden darĂŒber hinaus durch das Referenzieren ihrer AktivitĂ€t gegenĂŒber nicht-reduzierbaren KontrollmolekĂŒle fĂŒr die Erstellung zelllinienabhĂ€ngiger Profile der ReduktaseaktivitĂ€t in 177 Zelllinien genutzt. Schließlich waren diese neuen Krebsmittel im Tiermodell gut vertrĂ€glich und zeigten in zwei verschiedenen Mausmodellen eine krebshemmende Wirkung (Preprint 2022b). Zusammenfassend prĂ€sentiert diese Dissertation monothiol-resistente reduzierbare Trigger-Einheiten fĂŒr das zellulĂ€re Trx-System zur Entwicklung neuartiger, selektiver Reporter-Sonden, sowie eine neue Klasse reduktiv aktivierbarer Krebsmittel auf Basis eines adaptierbaren Trigger-Cargo Designs. Diese fanden entweder zur selektiven Messung zellulĂ€rer ProteinaktivitĂ€t oder zum Einsatz als Antikrebsmittel Verwendung. Es wurden chemokompatible Motive sowohl fĂŒr TrxR als auch fĂŒr Trx/Grx identifiziert, wobei deren zyklische Natur eine Aktivierung durch GSH verhindert. Eine weitere Differenzierung zwischen den beiden Redox-Proteinen Trx und Grx und anderen Proteinen der Trx-Superfamilie erfordert eine zusĂ€tzliche Ebene der Selektierung, z. B. durch molekulare Erkennung, und ist Gegenstand laufender Arbeiten. Die flexible Verwendung verschiedener molekularer Wirkstoffe ermöglicht dabei die „Pipeline-Entwicklung“ von Diagnostika und Therapeutika, die von der zellulĂ€ren Redox-Maschinerie analog umgesetzt werden, und dadurch Schlussfolgerungen aus der Diagnostik direkt auf eine Therapie ĂŒbertragbar machen. Dies birgt großes Potenzial fĂŒr kĂŒnftige Entwicklungen bei einer potenziellen Übertragung des modularen Konzepts auf andere Enzymklassen und therapeutische Einsatzgebiete

    Myofascial Trigger Points in Children With Tension-Type Headache: A New Diagnostic and Therapeutic Option

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    The goal of this pilot study was to evaluate the effect of a trigger point–specific physiotherapy on headache frequency, intensity, and duration in children with episodic or chronic tension-type headache. Patients were recruited from the special headache outpatient clinic. A total of 9 girls (mean age 13.1 years; range, 5-15 years) with the diagnosis of tension-type headache participated in the pilot study from May to September 2006 and received trigger point–specific physiotherapy twice a week by a trained physiotherapist. After an average number of 6.5 therapeutic sessions, the headache frequency had been reduced by 67.7%, intensity by 74.3%, and duration by 77.3%. No side effects were noted during the treatment. These preliminary findings suggest a role for active trigger points in children with tension-type headache. Trigger point–specific physiotherapy seems to be an effective therapy in these children. Further prospective and controlled studies in a larger cohort are warranted

    Biochar and biochar with N-fertilizer affect soil N2O emission in Haplic Luvisol

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    The benefits of biochar application are well described in tropical soils, however there is a dearth of information on its effects in agricultural temperate soils. An interesting and little explored interaction may occur in an intensive agriculture setting; biochar addition may modify the effect of commonplace N-fertilization.We conducted a field experiment to study the effects of biochar application at the rate of 0, 10 and 20 t ha−1 (B0, B10 and B20) in combination with 0, 40 and 80 kg N ha−1 of N-fertilizer (N0, N40, N80).We followed nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, analysed a series of soil physicochemical properties and measured barley yield in a Haplic Luvisol in Central Europe. Seasonal cumulative N2O emissions from B10N0 and B20N0 treatments decreased by 27 and 25% respectively, when compared to B0N0. Cumulative N2O emissions from N40 and N80 combined with B10 and B20 were also lower by 21, 19 and 25, 32%, respectively compared to controls B0N40 and B0N80. Average pH was significantly increased by biochar addition. Increased soil pH and reduces NO−3 content seen in biochar treatments could be the two possible mechanisms responsible for reduced N2O emissions. There was a statistically significant increase of soil water content in B20N0 treatment compared to B0N0 control, possibly as a result of larger surface area and the presence of microspores having altered pore size distribution and water-holding capacity of the soil. Application of biochar at the rate of 10 t ha−1 had a positive effect on spring barley grain yield

    Aminomethylation/hydrogenolysis as an alternative to direct methylation of metalated isoquinolines - a novel total synthesis of the alkaloid 7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-1-methylisoquinoline

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    Highly-substituted isoquinolines are important scaffolds in syntheses of natural products and in drug development and hence, effective synthetic approaches are required. Here we present a novel method for the introduction of a methyl group at C1 of isoquinolines. This is exemplified by a new total synthesis of the alkaloid 7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-1-methylisoquinoline. Direct metalation of 7-benzyloxy-6-methoxyisoquinoline with Knochel-Hauser base, followed by cuprate-mediated methylation gives the target alkaloid directly, but separation from the educt is cumbersome. Quenching the metalated intermediate with Eschenmoser's reagent gives an easy to clean tertiary benzylamine, which, after quaternization with iodomethane, is easily converted into the desired 1-methylisoquinoline by hydrogenolysis of both the benzylamine and benzyl ether groups

    How dose of biochar and biochar with nitrogen can improve the parameters of soil organic matter and soil structure?

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    Biochar application to agricultural soils has a significant potential to influence soil resource availability and thus crop performance. A factorial experiment investigating effects of different biochar application rates combined with nitrogen fertilizer was conducted in field conditions on a Haplic Luvisol. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of biochar and biochar combined with fertilization on soil organic matter and soil structure parameters. The treatments comprised combinations of biochar application of 0, 10 and 20 t ha−1 (B0, B10 and B20) and 0, 40 and 80 kg N ha−1 of nitrogen fertilizer (N0, N40, N80) applied in a full-factorial design. Biochar application rate of 20 t ha−1 significantly increased soil organic carbon content (SOC) and non-labile carbon content (CNL), but decreased carbon lability (LC). The addition of biochar at 10 t ha−1 together with 40 and 80 kg N ha−1 significantly increased the values of SOC and CNL. On the other hand, B10N80 treatment resulted in a considerable decrease of carbon lability (LC). Overall, the lowest average content of water-stable micro-aggregates was found in the B20N80 treatment and then with B10N0 < B20N40 < B20N0 < B10N80 < B0N0 < B10N40. Biochar applied at 20 t ha−1 increased the critical level of soil organic matter and decreased the crusting index

    Cyclic 5-membered disulfides are not selective substrates of thioredoxin reductase, but are opened nonspecifically

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    The cyclic five-membered disulfide 1,2-dithiolane has been widely used in chemical biology and in redox probes. Contradictory reports have described it either as nonspecifically reduced in cells, or else as a highly specific substrate for thioredoxin reductase (TrxR). Here we show that 1,2-dithiolane probes, such as “TRFS” probes, are nonspecifically reduced by thiol reductants and redox-active proteins, and their cellular performance is barely affected by TrxR inhibition or knockout. Therefore, results of cellular imaging or inhibitor screening using 1,2-dithiolanes should not be interpreted as reflecting TrxR activity, and previous studies may need re-evaluation. To understand 1,2-dithiolanes’ complex behaviour, probe localisation, environment-dependent fluorescence, reduction-independent ring-opening polymerisation, and thiol-dependent cellular uptake must all be considered; particular caution is needed when co-applying thiophilic inhibitors. We present a general approach controlling against assay misinterpretation with reducible probes, to ensure future TrxR-targeted designs are robustly evaluated for selectivity, and to better orient future research

    Distribution and habitat segregation on different spatial scales among diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid cytotypes of Senecio carniolicus (Asteraceae) in the Eastern Alps

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    The spatial distribution of cytotypes can provide valuable insights into evolutionary patterns of polyploid complexes. In a previous study the macro-scale distribution of the three main cytotypes in Senecio carniolicus (Asteraceae) within the Eastern Alps was characterized. Employing a roughly 12-fold extended sampling, the present study focuses on unravelling patterns of cytotype distribution on the meso- and microscale and on correlating those with ecological properties of the growing sites. DAPI flow cytometry of dried samples was used to determine DNA ploidy level in 5033 individuals from 100 populations spread over the entire Eastern Alpine distribution area of S. carniolicus. Descriptors of microhabitats as well as spatial data were recorded in the field, and analysed with a mixed-effects ANOVA. Extensive variation in DNA ploidy levels (2x, 3x, 4x, 5x, 6x, 7x, 8x, 9x) was detected. Of the main cytotypes, diploids and hexaploids were widespread and had strongly overlapping distributions resulting in the frequent occurrence of cytotype mixtures (half of the investigated populations), whereas tetraploids were disjunctly distributed and occurred in the south-west and the east of the species' distribution area. In spite of the frequent co-occurrence of cytotypes, only 1 % of the samples belonged to secondary cytotypes (3x, 5x, 7x, 8x, 9x). Diploids, tetraploids and hexaploids were altitudinally segregated, but with broad overlap. Similarly, highly significant differences in vegetation and rock cover as well as microhabitat exposure were found between the main cytotypes. Senecio carniolicus shows a remarkable diversity of cytotypes. The distribution of the three main cytotypes (2x, 4x, 6x) has been shaped by Pleistocene glaciations to different extents. Whereas tetraploids are nearly entirely restricted to refugia, hexaploids colonized areas that were extensively glaciated. Diploid and hexaploid individuals often co-occur in mixed populations, where they are spatially and ecologically segregated at both the meso-scale (altitudinal differentiation, exposure of the growing site) and the micro-scale (cover of vegetation and bare rock). With regard to the ecological parameters investigated, the tetraploid cytotype occupies an intermediate position. The rareness of secondary cytotypes suggests the presence of strong pre- or post-zygotic mating barriers

    Genetic landscape of congenital insensitivity to pain and hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies

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    Congenital insensitivity to pain (CIP) and hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN) are clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders exclusively or predominantly affecting the sensory and autonomic neurons. Due to the rarity of the diseases and findings based mainly on single case reports or small case series, knowledge about these disorders is limited. Here, we describe the molecular workup of a large international cohort of CIP/HSAN patients including patients from normally under-represented countries. We identify 80 previously unreported pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in a total of 73 families in the >20 known CIP/HSAN-associated genes. The data expand the spectrum of disease-relevant alterations in CIP/HSAN, including novel variants in previously rarely recognized entities such as ATL3-, FLVCR1- and NGF-associated neuropathies and previously under-recognized mutation types such as larger deletions. In silico predictions, heterologous expression studies, segregation analyses and metabolic tests helped to overcome limitations of current variant classification schemes that often fail to categorize a variant as disease-related or benign. The study sheds light on the genetic causes and disease-relevant changes within individual genes in CIP/HSAN. This is becoming increasingly important with emerging clinical trials investigating subtype or gene-specific treatment strategies

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for adolescents and adults with inborn errors of immunity: an EBMT IEWP study.

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    peer reviewedAllogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the gold standard curative therapy for infants and children with many inborn errors of immunity (IEI), but adolescents and adults with IEI are rarely referred for transplant. Lack of published HSCT outcome data outside small, single-center studies and perceived high risk of transplant-related mortality have delayed the adoption of HSCT for IEI patients presenting or developing significant organ damage later in life. This large retrospective, multicenter HSCT outcome study reports on 329 IEI patients (age range, 15-62.5 years at HSCT). Patients underwent first HSCT between 2000 and 2019. Primary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS). We also evaluated the influence of IEI-subgroup and IEI-specific risk factors at HSCT, including infections, bronchiectasis, colitis, malignancy, inflammatory lung disease, splenectomy, hepatic dysfunction, and systemic immunosuppression. At a median follow-up of 44.3 months, the estimated OS at 1 and 5 years post-HSCT for all patients was 78% and 71%, and EFS was 65% and 62%, respectively, with low rates of severe acute (8%) or extensive chronic (7%) graft-versus-host disease. On univariate analysis, OS and EFS were inferior in patients with primary antibody deficiency, bronchiectasis, prior splenectomy, hepatic comorbidity, and higher hematopoietic cell transplant comorbidity index scores. On multivariable analysis, EFS was inferior in those with a higher number of IEI-associated complications. Neither age nor donor had a significant effect on OS or EFS. We have identified age-independent risk factors for adverse outcome, providing much needed evidence to identify which patients are most likely to benefit from HSCT
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