5,395 research outputs found

    Heavy quark physics in CMS

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    The most recent results which concern the heavy quark hadrons done in the CMS experiment are reported. The searching area spans over the heavy quark spectroscopy, production cross sections, beauty meson decay properties, rare decays, and CP violation

    Growth of Rhodococcus sp. strain BCP1 on gaseous n-alkanes: New metabolic insights and transcriptional analysis of two soluble di-iron monooxygenase genes

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    Rhodococcus sp. strain BCP1 was initially isolated for its ability to grow on gaseous n-alkanes, which act as inducers for the co-metabolic degradation of low-chlorinated compounds. Here, both molecular and metabolic features of BCP1 cells grown on gaseous and short-chain n-alkanes (up to n-heptane) were examined in detail. We show that propane metabolism generated terminal and sub-terminal oxidation products such as 1- and 2-propanol, whereas 1-butanol was the only terminal oxidation product detected from n-butane metabolism. Two gene clusters, prmABCD and smoABCD-coding for Soluble Di-Iron Monooxgenases (SDIMOs) involved in gaseous n-alkanes oxidation-were detected in the BCP1 genome. By means of Reverse Transcriptase-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis, a set of substrates inducing the expression of the sdimo genes in BCP1 were assessed as well as their transcriptional repression in the presence of sugars, organic acids, or during the cell growth on rich medium (Luria-Bertani broth). The transcriptional start sites of both the sdimo gene clusters were identified by means of primer extension experiments. Finally, proteomic studies revealed changes in the protein pattern induced by growth on gaseous- (n-butane) and/or liquid (n-hexane) short-chain n-alkanes as compared to growth on succinate. Among the differently expressed protein spots, two chaperonins and an isocytrate lyase were identified along with oxidoreductases involved in oxidation reactions downstream of the initial monooxygenase reaction step

    Improved techniques in data analysis and interpretation of potential fields: examples of application in volcanic and seismically active areas

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    Geopotential data may be interpreted by many different techniques, depending on the nature of the mathematical equations correlating specific unknown ground parameters to the measured data set. The investigation based on the study of the gravity and magnetic anomaly fields represents one of the most important geophysical approaches in the earth sciences. It has now evolved aimed both at improving of known methods and testing other new and reliable techniques. This paper outlines a general framework for several applications of recent techniques in the study of the potential methods for the earth sciences. Most of them are here described and significant case histories are shown to illustrate their reliability on active seismic and volcanic areas

    Digital approach for the rehabilitation of the edentulous maxilla with pterygoid and standard implants: The static and dynamic computer-aided protocols

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    A full-arch rehabilitation of the edentulous upper jaw without grafting procedures exploits the residual alveolar or the basal bone, with the necessity of long implants placed with a particular orientation. The precision in planning and placing the fixtures is fundamental to avoid clinical problems and to allow an acceptable connection with the prosthesis. The computer-aided implantology resulted in more accuracy than the traditional one, with a high standard of correspondence between the virtual project and the real outcome. This paper reports about the two different digital protocols, static and dynamic, as support to implant-borne prosthetic rehabilitation of edentulous maxillae. Two pterygoid and two/four anterior standard implants were seated in both cases by two different operators, without flap raising, and immediately loaded. This approach avoided the posterior cantilever by-passing the maxillary sinus and was adequately planned and realized without any surgical or prosthetic error. The two digital flow-charts were described step by step, underlining each other’s advantages and drawbacks compared to a free-hand approach

    Magneto-seismic interpretation of subsurface volcanism in the Gaeta Gulf (Italy, Tyrrhenian Sea)

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    The occurrence of a former subaerial volcanic edifice off the Volturno River (Tyrrhenian Sea, Gulf of Gaeta) in the 41°N parallel is suggested by joint interpretation of multichannel seismic lines and ship-borne magnetic data. In the Campanian region igneous (volcanic) rocks are very close to the carbonate Mesozoic basement and seismics cannot always discriminate between them. A joint seismic-magnetic analysis was very effective in assessing the lithological nature of the bodies evidenced by both geophysical methods. Distortion analysis showed that the main magnetic source in the area is characterised by a not normal-polarity direction of the magnetization, similar to other Pleistocene volcanoes in the Tyrrhenian region. Hence we argued that the overall magmatic emplacement for this source occurred during a reverse-polarity chron, very likely the 0.78-1.78 Ma time span. This magnetically-derived time constraint is in agreement with seismic stratigraphy that shows that the entire volcano is sealed by the Volturno River prograding delta from Middle Pleistocene to Present in age. Our interpreted volcano belongs to a set of inferred onshore and offshore volcanic edifices all lying along the 41°N paralle

    Biosensors to Monitor Cell Activity in 3D Hydrogel-Based Tissue Models

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    Three-dimensional (3D) culture models have gained relevant interest in tissue engineering and drug discovery owing to their suitability to reproduce in vitro some key aspects of human tissues and to provide predictive information for in vivo tests. In this context, the use of hydrogels as artificial extracellular matrices is of paramount relevance, since they allow closer recapitulation of (patho)physiological features of human tissues. However, most of the analyses aimed at characterizing these models are based on time-consuming and endpoint assays, which can provide only static and limited data on cellular behavior. On the other hand, biosensing systems could be adopted to measure on-line cellular activity, as currently performed in bi-dimensional, i.e., monolayer, cell culture systems; however, their translation and integration within 3D hydrogel-based systems is not straight forward, due to the geometry and materials properties of these advanced cell culturing approaches. Therefore, researchers have adopted different strategies, through the development of biochemical, electrochemical and optical sensors, but challenges still remain in employing these devices. In this review, after examining recent advances in adapting existing biosensors from traditional cell monolayers to polymeric 3D cells cultures, we will focus on novel designs and outcomes of a range of biosensors specifically developed to provide real-time analysis of hydrogel-based cultures

    Bouguer gravity field of the Tuscan Archipelago (central Italy)

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    In this paper, we present a new Bouguer gravity map of the Northern Tuscan offshore (central Italy), based on original gravity data acquired on the islands of the Tuscan Archipelago. Our dataset integrates 274 unpublished gravity field measurements with 126 available marine gravity data of the northern Tyrrhenian Sea. The Bouguer anomaly map shows a westward and southward increase of the regional gravity field associated with the uplift of the Moho boundary from central Apennines towards the Tyrrhenian Sea. At a local scale, several Bouguer anomalies are well associated with the igneous plutons of the Elba, Montecristo and Capraia islands, as a result of a deep density contrast between the granitoid intrusive rocks and the embedding metamorphic basement. The presented Bouguer anomaly map represents a useful tool for future studies of the complex geological and geodynamical setting of the Tuscan Archipelago and of the buried and deep igneous structures

    Aerobic growth of Rhodococcus aetherivorans BCP1 using selected naphthenic acids as the sole carbon and energy sources

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    Naphthenic acids (NAs) are an important group of toxic organic compounds naturally occurring in hydrocarbon deposits. This work shows that Rhodococcus aetherivorans BCP1 cells not only utilize a mixture of eight different NAs (8XNAs) for growth but they are also capable of marked degradation of two model NAs, cyclohexanecarboxylic acid (CHCA) and cyclopentanecarboxylic acid (CPCA) when supplied at concentrations from 50 to 500 mgL-1. The growth curves of BCP1 on 8XNAs, CHCA, and CPCA showed an initial lag phase not present in growth on glucose, which presumably was related to the toxic effects of NAs on the cell membrane permeability. BCP1 cell adaptation responses that allowed survival on NAs included changes in cell morphology, production of intracellular bodies and changes in fatty acid composition. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of BCP1 cells grown on CHCA or CPCA showed a slight reduction in the cell size, the production of EPS-like material and intracellular electron-transparent and electron-dense inclusion bodies. The electron-transparent inclusions increased in the amount and size in NA-grown BCP1 cells under nitrogen limiting conditions and contained storage lipids as suggested by cell staining with the lipophilic Nile Blue A dye. Lipidomic analyses revealed significant changes with increases of methyl-branched (MBFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) examining the fatty acid composition of NAs-growing BCP1 cells. PUFA biosynthesis is not usual in bacteria and, together with MBFA, can influence structural and functional processes with resulting effects on cell vitality. Finally, through the use of RT (Reverse Transcription)-qPCR, a gene cluster (chcpca) was found to be transcriptionally induced during the growth on CHCA and CPCA. Based on the expression and bioinformatics results, the predicted products of the chcpca gene cluster are proposed to be involved in aerobic NA degradation in R. aetherivorans BCP1. This study provides first insights into the genetic and metabolic mechanisms allowing a Rhodococcus strain to aerobically degrade NAs

    Multiparametric data analysis for seismic sources identification in the Campania re-gion: merge of seismological, structural and gravimetric data.

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    The Campania region is one of the Italian most active areas from a geodynamic point of view since it is characterized by occurrence of intense and widely spread seismic activity. The seismicity of the area is concentrated mainly along the Southern Apennines chain, as well as beneath the Campanian volcanic areas (Vesuvio, Campi Flegrei, Ischia) and is also originated by seismic sources buried in the Campanian Plain and offshore the Thyrrenian sea. The aim of this paper is an attempt to better constrain the main active, outcropping and buried fault systems of the Campanian area through the correlation between seismicity, tectonic structures (from geological data and image analysis) and gravimetric data. The main seismogenetic sources of the Campanian Apennines, responsible for the destructive historical events of 1456, 1688, 1694, 1702, 1732, 1930, 1962 and 1980 (Io = X-XI MCS), activated mainly along NW–SE faults (CPTI, 2004; DISS, 2010) with hypocenters concentrated within the upper 20 km of the crust. The available focal mechanisms of the larger events show normal solutions consistent with NE–SW extension (Pondrelli et al., 2007). The Plio-Pleistocene Campanian Plain is a structural depression located between the eastern side of the Tyrrhenian Sea and the Southern Apennines chain. The stress field acting in the Campanian Plain is strongly debated. Structural observations on the faults of the Plain suggest prevalent normal motion for the NW–SE and the NE–SW trending faults, and minor oblique motion, consistent with deformation style of the Southern Apennines. The Plain is characterized by seismicity of energy lower than the seismic activity of the Southern Apennines chain mainly occurring along its margins. Minor seismicity spreads out inside the Plain. In this paper, seismic, geologic and gravimetric data have been analysed in GIS environment. In particular, the seismological data used in this study are relative both to the historical and recent seismic activity, collected by the following Catalogues: CPTI04 Catalogue of Parametric Italian Earthquakes, 2004 (217 b.C to 2002); CSI Catalogue of Instrumental Italian Earthquakes (1981-2002); CNT Seismic Bulletin of Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (2003-2008); Data Base of Seismic Laboratory of Osservatorio Vesuviano (Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia) (2000-2009); SisCam Catalogue (Seismotectonic Information System of the Campanian Region) (1980-2000). Seismic data have been merged in a new seismic database. Moreover, new precise locations of a set of seismic events relative to the Campanian Plain have been processed. Some clusters of epicentres have been identified confirming the existence of active buried fault systems inside the Plain. The Geological Dataset has been implemented by merging all outcropping and buried faults extracted from the available geological and geophysical papers and maps (Bigi et al., 1983; Ambrosetti et al. 1986; Bonardi et al.,1988; Orsi et al. 1996; Milia A. e Torrente M.M.,1999; Cinque et al. 2000; Bruno et al. 2003). A multiscale analysis of the gravity and magnetic fields of the Southern Italy has been performed by Fedi et al, 2005. Multiscale Derivative Analysis (MDA) provided an almost complete representation of the structural framework of Southern Italy at three different scales. Most of the known geological elements of the Apennine system are clearly shown at intermediate and short scales, together with several trends indicating the location of buried structures. The main results of the combined analysis of seismic epicentres, faults and gravity data, indicate a strong correlation between seismicity and MDA lineaments from gravity data. Moreover, tectonic structures without correlated seismic activity and spread seismicity, apparently not linked with already known faults (buried faults?) have been identified
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