125 research outputs found

    A prospective study of mortality from cryptococcal meningitis following treatment induction with 1200 mg oral fluconazole in Blantyre, Malawi.

    Get PDF
    OBJECTIVE: We have previously reported high ten-week mortality from cryptococcal meningitis in Malawian adults following treatment-induction with 800 mg oral fluconazole (57% [33/58]). National guidelines in Malawi and other African countries now advocate an increased induction dose of 1200 mg. We assessed whether this has improved outcomes. DESIGN: This was a prospective observational study of HIV-infected adults with cryptococcal meningitis confirmed by diagnostic lumbar puncture. Treatment was with fluconazole 1200 mg/day for two weeks then 400mg/day for 8 weeks. Mortality within the first 10 weeks was the study end-point, and current results were compared with data from our prior patient cohort who started on fluconazole 800 mg/day. RESULTS: 47 participants received fluconazole monotherapy. Despite a treatment-induction dose of 1200 mg, ten-week mortality remained 55% (26/47). This was no better than our previous study (Hazard Ratio [HR] of death on 1200 mg vs. 800 mg fluconazole: 1.29 (95% CI: 0.77-2.16, p = 0.332)). There was some evidence for improved survival in patients who had repeat lumbar punctures during early therapy to lower intracranial pressure (HR: 0.27 [95% CI: 0.07-1.03, p = 0.055]). CONCLUSION: There remains an urgent need to identify more effective, affordable and deliverable regimens for cryptococcal meningitis

    Characterization of the Prophage Repertoire of African Salmonella Typhimurium ST313 Reveals High Levels of Spontaneous Induction of Novel Phage BTP1

    Get PDF
    In the past 30 years,Salmonella bloodstream infections have become a significant health problem in sub-Saharan Africa and are responsible for the deaths of anestimated 390,000 people each year. The disease is predominantly caused by a recently described sequence type of SalmonellaTyphimurium: ST313, which has a distinctive set of prophage sequences. We have thoroughly characterized the ST313-associated prophages both genetically and experimentally. ST313 representative strain D23580 contains five full-length prophages: BTP1, Gifsy-2D23580, ST64BD23580, Gifsy-1D23580,and BTP5. We show that commonS.Typhimurium prophages Gifsy-2, Gifsy-1, andST64B are inactivated in ST313 by mutations. Prophage BTP1 was found to be a functional novel phage, and the first isolate of the proposed new species “Salmonellavirus BTP1”, belonging to the P22virusgenus. Surprisingly,∼109BTP1 virus particlesperml were detected in the supernatant of non-induced, stationary-phase culturesof strain D23580, representing the highest spontaneously induced phage titer so farreported for a bacterial prophage. High spontaneous induction is shown to be anintrinsic property of prophage BTP1, and indicates the phage-mediated lysis of around0.2% of the lysogenic population. The fact that BTP1 is highly conserved in ST313 poses interesting questions about the potential fitness costs and benefits of novel prophagesin epidemicS.Typhimurium ST313

    Environmental surveillance for Salmonella Typhi as a tool to estimate the incidence of typhoid fever in low-income populations.

    Get PDF
    Background: The World Health Organisation recommends prioritised use of recently prequalified typhoid conjugate vaccines in countries with the highest incidence of typhoid fever. However, representative typhoid surveillance data are lacking in many low-income countries because of the costs and challenges of diagnostic clinical microbiology. Environmental surveillance (ES) of Salmonella Typhi in sewage and wastewater using molecular methods may offer a low-cost alternative, but its performance in comparison with clinical surveillance has not been assessed. Methods: We developed a harmonised protocol for typhoid ES and its implementation in communities in India and Malawi where it will be compared with findings from hospital-based surveillance for typhoid fever. The protocol includes methods for ES site selection based on geospatial analysis, grab and trap sample collection at sewage and wastewater sites, and laboratory methods for sample processing, concentration and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect Salmonella Typhi. The optimal locations for ES sites based on digital elevation models and mapping of sewage and river networks are described for each community and their suitability confirmed through field investigation. We will compare the prevalence and abundance of Salmonella Typhi in ES samples collected each month over a 12-month period to the incidence of blood culture confirmed typhoid cases recorded at referral hospitals serving the study areas. Conclusions: If environmental detection of Salmonella Typhi correlates with the incidence of typhoid fever estimated through clinical surveillance, typhoid ES may be a powerful and low-cost tool to estimate the local burden of typhoid fever and support the introduction of typhoid conjugate vaccines. Typhoid ES could also allow the impact of vaccination to be assessed and rapidly identify circulation of drug resistant strains

    Spatial and genomic data to characterize endemic typhoid transmission

    Get PDF
    BACKGROUND: Diverse environmental exposures and risk factors have been implicated in the transmission of Salmonella Typhi, however, the dominant transmission pathways through the environment to susceptible humans remain unknown. Here, we utilize spatial, bacterial genomic, and hydrological data to refine our view of Typhoid transmission in an endemic setting. METHODS: 546 patients presenting to Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital in Blantyre, Malawi with blood culture-confirmed typhoid fever between April 2015 and January 2017 were recruited to a cohort study. The households of a subset of these patients were geolocated, and 256 S. Typhi isolates were whole genome sequenced. Pairwise single nucleotide variant (SNV) distances were incorporated into a geostatistical modeling framework using multidimensional scaling. RESULTS: Typhoid fever was not evenly distributed across Blantyre, with estimated minimum incidence ranging across the city from less than 15 to over 100 cases/100,000/year. Pairwise SNV distance and physical household distances were significantly correlated (p=0.001). We evaluated the ability of river catchment to explain the spatial patterns of genomics observed, finding that it significantly improved the fit of the model (p=0.003). We also found spatial correlation at a smaller spatial scale, of households living <192 meters apart. CONCLUSIONS: These findings reinforce the emerging view that hydrological systems play a key role in the transmission of typhoid fever. By combining genomic and spatial data, we show how multi-faceted data can be used to identify high incidence areas, understand the connections between them, and inform targeted environmental surveillance, all of which will be critical to shape local and regional typhoid control strategies

    Treatment responses to Azithromycin and ciprofloxacin in uncomplicated salmonella typhi infection: a comparison of clinical and microbiological data from a controlled human infection model

    Get PDF
    Background The treatment of enteric fever is complicated by the emergence of antimicrobial resistant Salmonella Typhi. Azithromycin is commonly used for first-line treatment of uncomplicated enteric fever, but the response to treatment may be sub-optimal in some patient groups when compared with fluoroquinolones. Methods We performed an analysis of responses to treatment with azithromycin (500mg once-daily, 14 days) or ciprofloxacin (500mg twice-daily, 14 days) in healthy UK volunteers (18–60 years) enrolled into two Salmonella controlled human infection studies. Study A was a single-centre, open-label, randomised trial. Participants were randomised 1:1 to receive open-label oral ciprofloxacin or azithromycin, stratified by vaccine group (Vi-polysaccharide, Vi-conjugate or control Men-ACWY vaccine). Study B was an observational challenge/re-challenge study, where participants were randomised to challenge with Salmonella Typhi or Salmonella Paratyphi A. Outcome measures included fever clearance time, blood-culture clearance time and a composite measure of prolonged treatment response (persistent fever ≥38.0°C for ≥72 hours, persistently positive S. Typhi blood cultures for ≥72 hours, or change in antibiotic treatment). Both trials are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02324751 and NCT02192008). Findings In 81 participants diagnosed with S. Typhi in two studies, treatment with azithromycin was associated with prolonged bacteraemia (median 90.8 hours [95% CI: 65.9–93.8] vs. 20.1 hours [95% CI: 7.8–24.3], p<0.001) and prolonged fever clearance times <37.5°C (hazard ratio 2.4 [95%CI: 1.2–5.0]; p = 0.02). Results were consistent when studies were analysed independently and in a sub-group of participants with no history of vaccination or previous challenge. A prolonged treatment response was observed significantly more frequently in the azithromycin group (28/52 [54.9%]) compared with the ciprofloxacin group (1/29 [3.5%]; p<0.001). In participants treated with azithromycin, observed systemic plasma concentrations of azithromycin did not exceed the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), whilst predicted intracellular concentrations did exceed the MIC. In participants treated with ciprofloxacin, the observed systemic plasma concentrations and predicted intracellular concentrations of ciprofloxacin exceeded the MIC. Interpretation Azithromycin at a dose of 500mg daily is an effective treatment for fully sensitive strains of S. Typhi but is associated with delayed treatment response and prolonged bacteraemia when compared with ciprofloxacin within the context of a human challenge model. Whilst the cellular accumulation of azithromycin is predicted to be sufficient to treat intracellular S. Typhi, systemic exposure may be sub-optimal for the elimination of extracellular circulating S. Typhi. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, further studies are required to define appropriate azithromycin dosing regimens for enteric fever and to assess novel treatment strategies, including combination therapies. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02324751 and NCT02192008)

    Outer membrane utilisomes mediate glycan uptake in gut Bacteroidetes

    Get PDF
    Bacteroidetes are abundant members of the human microbiota, utilizing a myriad of diet- and host-derived glycans in the distal gut1. Glycan uptake across the bacterial outer membrane of these bacteria is mediated by SusCD protein complexes, comprising a membrane-embedded barrel and a lipoprotein lid, which is thought to open and close to facilitate substrate binding and transport. However, surface-exposed glycan-binding proteins and glycoside hydrolases also play critical roles in the capture, processing and transport of large glycan chains. The interactions between these components in the outer membrane are poorly understood, despite being crucial for nutrient acquisition by our colonic microbiota. Here we show that for both the levan and dextran utilization systems of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, the additional outer membrane components assemble on the core SusCD transporter, forming stable glycan-utilizing machines that we term utilisomes. Single-particle cryogenic electron microscopy structures in the absence and presence of substrate reveal concerted conformational changes that demonstrate the mechanism of substrate capture, and rationalize the role of each component in the utilisome

    Distinct Salmonella Enteritidis lineages associated with enterocolitis in high-income settings and invasive disease in low-income settings.

    Get PDF
    An epidemiological paradox surrounds Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis. In high-income settings, it has been responsible for an epidemic of poultry-associated, self-limiting enterocolitis, whereas in sub-Saharan Africa it is a major cause of invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella disease, associated with high case fatality. By whole-genome sequence analysis of 675 isolates of S. Enteritidis from 45 countries, we show the existence of a global epidemic clade and two new clades of S. Enteritidis that are geographically restricted to distinct regions of Africa. The African isolates display genomic degradation, a novel prophage repertoire, and an expanded multidrug resistance plasmid. S. Enteritidis is a further example of a Salmonella serotype that displays niche plasticity, with distinct clades that enable it to become a prominent cause of gastroenteritis in association with the industrial production of eggs and of multidrug-resistant, bloodstream-invasive infection in Africa.This work was supported by the Wellcome Trust. We would like to thank the members of the Pathogen Informatics Team and the core sequencing teams at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute (Cambridge, UK). We are grateful to D. Harris for work in managing the sequence data

    Speciation of common Gram-negative pathogens using a highly multiplexed high resolution melt curve assay

    Get PDF
    The identification of the bacterial species responsible for an infection remains an important step for the selection of antimicrobial therapy. Gram-negative bacteria are an important source of hospital and community acquired infections and frequently antimicrobial resistant. Speciation of bacteria is typically carried out by biochemical profiling of organisms isolated from clinical specimens, which is time consuming and delays the initiation of tailored treatment. Whilst molecular methods such as PCR have been used, they often struggle with the challenge of detecting and discriminating a wide range of targets. High resolution melt analysis is an end-point qPCR detection method that provides greater multiplexing capability than probe based methods. Here we report the design of a high resolution melt analysis assay for the identification of six common Gram-negative pathogens; Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella Sp, and Acinetobacter baumannii, and a generic Gram-negative specific 16S rRNA control. The assay was evaluated using a well characterised collection of 113 clinically isolated Gram-negative bacteria. The agreement between the HRM assay and the reference test of PCR and sequencing was 98.2% (Kappa 0.96); the overall sensitivity and specificity of the assay was 97.1% (95% CI: 90.1–99.7%) and 100% (95% CI: 91.78–100%) respectively

    The Role of the st313-td Gene in Virulence of Salmonella Typhimurium ST313

    Get PDF
    Multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ST313 has emerged in sub-Saharan Africa causing severe infections in humans. Therefore, it has been speculated that this specific sequence type, ST313, carries factors associated with increased pathogenicity. We assessed the role in virulence of a gene with a yet unknown function, st313-td, detected in ST313 through comparative genomics. Additionally, the structure of the genomic island ST313-GI, harbouring the gene was determined. The gene st313-td was cloned into wild type S. Typhimurium 4/74 (4/74-C) as well as knocked out in S. Typhimurium ST313 02-03/002 (Δst313-td) followed by complementation (02-03/002-C). Δst313-td was less virulent in mice following i.p. challenge than the wild type and this phenotype could be partly complemented in trans, indicating that st313-td plays a role during systemic infection. The gene st313-td was shown not to affect invasion of cultured epithelial cells, while the absence of the gene significantly affects uptake and intracellular survival within macrophages. The gene st313-td was proven to be strongly associated to invasiveness, harboured by 92.5% of S. Typhimurium blood isolates (n = 82) and 100% of S. Dublin strains (n = 50) analysed. On the contrary, S. Typhimurium isolates of animal and food origin (n = 82) did not carry st313-td. Six human, non-blood isolates of S. Typhimurium from Belarus, China and Nepal harboured the gene and belonged to sequence types ST398 and ST19. Our data showed a global presence of the st313-td gene and in other sequence types than ST313. The gene st313-td was shown to be expressed during logarithmic phase of growth in 14 selected Salmonella strains carrying the gene. This study reveals that st313-td plays a role in S. Typhimurium ST313 pathogenesis and adds another chapter to understanding of the virulence of S. Typhimurium and in particular of the emerging sequence type ST313

    Clinical use of Whole Genome Sequencing for Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Get PDF
    Drug resistant tuberculosis (TB) remains a major challenge to global health and to healthcare in the UK. In 2014, England recorded 6520 cases of TB of which 1.4% were multi-drug resistant (MDR-TB). Extensively drug resistant TB (XDR-TB) occurs at a much lower rate, but the impact on the patient and hospital is severe. Current diagnostic methods such as drug susceptibility testing and targeted molecular tests are slow to return or examine only a limited number of target regions respectively. Faster, more comprehensive diagnostics will enable earlier use of the most appropriate drug regimen thus improving patient outcome and reducing overall healthcare costs. Whole genome sequencing has been shown to provide a rapid and comprehensive view of the genotype of the organism and thus enable reliable prediction of the drug susceptibility phenotype within a clinically relevant time frame. In addition it provides the highest resolution when investigating transmission events in possible outbreak scenarios. However, robust software and database tools need to be developed for the full potential to be realized in this specialized area of medicine
    corecore