515 research outputs found

    The NASA pollution-reduction technology program for small jet aircraft engines

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    Three advanced combustor concepts, designed for the AiResearch TFE 731-2 turbofan engine, were evaluated in screening tests. Goals for carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons were met or closely approached with two of the concepts with relatively modest departures from conventional combustor design practices. A more advanced premixing/prevaporizing combustor, while appearing to have the potential for meeting the oxides of nitrogen goal as well, will require extensive development to make it a practical combustion system. Smoke numbers for the two combustor concepts were well within the EPA smoke standard. Phase 2, Combustor-Engine Compatibility Testing, which is in its early stages, and planned Phase 3, Combustor-Engine Demonstration Testing, are also described

    The NASA broad-specification fuels combustion technology program: An assessment of phase 1 test results

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    An assessment is made of the results of Phase 1 screening testing of current and advanced combustion system concepts using several broadened-properties fuels. The severity of each of several fuels-properties effects on combustor performance or liner life is discussed, as well as design techniques with the potential to offset these adverse effects. The selection of concepts to be pursued in Phase 2 refinement testing is described. This selection takes into account the relative costs and complexities of the concepts, the current outlook on pollutant emissions control, and practical operational problems

    NASA broad-specification fuels combustion technology program: Status and description

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    The program presented is a contracted effort to evolve and demonstrate the technology required to utilize broad-specification fuels in current and next generation commercial Conventional Takeoff and Landing aircraft engines, and to verify this technology in full-scale engine tests in 1983. The program consists of three phases: Combustor Concept Screening, Combustor Optimization Testing, and Engine Verification Testing. The development and screening of the combustion system designs for the CF6-80 engine and the JT9D-7 engine, respectively, in high-pressure sector test rigs are reported

    Performance of an annual combustor designed for a low-cost turbojet engine

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    Performance tests were conducted on a combustor designed for use in a low-cost turbojet engine. Low-cost features included the use of very inexpensive simplex fuel nozzles and combustor liners of perforated sheet material. Combustion efficiencies at the altitude-cruise and sea-level design points were approximately 94 and 96 percent, respectively. The combustor isothermal total-pressure loss was 8.8 percent at the altitude-cruise-condition diffuser-inlet Mach number of 0.335. The combustor-exit temperature pattern factor was less than 0.3 at the altitude-cruise, sea-level-cruise, and sea-level-static design conditions. The combustor-exit average radial temperature profiles at all conditions were in very good agreement with the design profile. The intense mixing required because of the very high combustor heat-release rate had an adverse effect on ignition capability at altitude windmilling design conditions

    The interaction between transpolar arcs and cusp spots

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    Transpolar arcs and cusp spots are both auroral phenomena which occur when the interplanetary magnetic field is northward. Transpolar arcs are associated with magnetic reconnection in the magnetotail, which closes magnetic flux and results in a "wedge" of closed flux which remains trapped, embedded in the magnetotail lobe. The cusp spot is an indicator of lobe reconnection at the high-latitude magnetopause; in its simplest case, lobe reconnection redistributes open flux without resulting in any net change in the open flux content of the magnetosphere. We present observations of the two phenomena interacting--i.e., a transpolar arc intersecting a cusp spot during part of its lifetime. The significance of this observation is that lobe reconnection can have the effect of opening closed magnetotail flux. We argue that such events should not be rare

    Early Service leavers: a study of the factors associated with premature separation from the UK Armed Forces and the mental health of those that leave early.

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    BACKGROUND: Approximately 18,000 personnel leave the UK Armed Forces annually. Those leaving before completing the minimum term of their contracts are called early Service leavers (ESLs). This study aims to identify characteristics associated with being an ESL, and compare the post-discharge mental health of ESLs and other Service leavers (non-ESLs). METHOD: A cross-sectional study used data on ex-Serving UK Armed Forces personnel. ESLs were personnel leaving before completing their 3-4.5 years minimum Service contracts and were compared with non-ESLs. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the associations between Service leaving status with socio-demographics, military characteristics and mental health outcomes. RESULTS: Of 845 Service leavers, 80 (9.5%) were ESLs. Being an ESL was associated with younger age, female sex, not being in a relationship, lower rank, serving in the Army and with a trend of reporting higher levels of childhood adversity, but not with deployment to Iraq. ESLs were at an increased risk of probable post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), common mental disorders, fatigue and multiple physical symptoms, but not alcohol misuse. CONCLUSIONS: The study suggests that operational Service is not a factor causing personnel to become an ESL. Current mental health problems were more commonly reported among ESLs than other Service leavers. There may be a need to target interventions to ESLs on leaving Service to smooth their transition to civilian life and prevent the negative mental health outcomes experienced by ESLs further down the line

    Burn injury, gender and cancer risk: population-based cohort study using data from Scotland and Western Australia

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    Objective: To investigate the risk of cancer and potential gender effects in persons hospitalised with burn injury. Design: Population-based retrospective cohort study using record-linkage systems in Scotland and Western Australia. Participants: Records of 37 890 and 23 450 persons admitted with a burn injury in Scotland and Western Australia, respectively, from 1983 to 2008. Deidentified extraction of all linked hospital morbidity records, mortality and cancer records were provided by the Information Service Division Scotland and the Western Australian Data Linkage Service. Main outcome measures: Total and gender-specific number of observed and expected cases of total (‘all sites’) and site-specific cancers and standardised incidence ratios (SIRs).Results: From 1983 to 2008, for female burn survivors, there was a greater number of observed versus expected notifications of total cancer with 1011 (SIR, 95% CI 1.3, 1.2to 1.4) and 244 (SIR, 95% CI 1.12, 1.05 to 1.30), respectively, for Scotland and Western Australia. No statistically significant difference in total cancer risk was found for males. Significant excesses in observed cancers among burn survivors (combined gender) in Scotland and Western Australian were found for buccal cavity, liver, larynx and respiratory tract and for cancers of the female genital tract. Conclusions: Results from the Scotland data confirmed the increased risk of total (‘all sites’) cancer previously observed among female burn survivors in Western Australia. The gender dimorphism observed in this study may be related to the role of gender in the immune response to burn injury. More research is required to understand the underlying mechanism(s) that may link burn injury with an increased risk of some cancers

    Male-specific Fruitless isoforms have different regulatory roles conferred by distinct zinc finger DNA binding domains

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    Background: Drosophila melanogaster adult males perform an elaborate courtship ritual to entice females to mate. fruitless (fru), a gene that is one of the key regulators of male courtship behavior, encodes multiple male-specific isoforms (Fru(M)). These isoforms vary in their carboxy-terminal zinc finger domains, which are predicted to facilitate DNA binding. Results: By over-expressing individual Fru(M) isoforms in fru-expressing neurons in either males or females and assaying the global transcriptional response by RNA-sequencing, we show that three Fru(M) isoforms have different regulatory activities that depend on the sex of the fly. We identified several sets of genes regulated downstream of Fru(M) isoforms, including many annotated with neuronal functions. By determining the binding sites of individual Fru(M) isoforms using SELEX we demonstrate that the distinct zinc finger domain of each Fru(M) isoforms confers different DNA binding specificities. A genome-wide search for these binding site sequences finds that the gene sets identified as induced by over-expression of Fru(M) isoforms in males are enriched for genes that contain the binding sites. An analysis of the chromosomal distribution of genes downstream of Fru(M) shows that those that are induced and repressed in males are highly enriched and depleted on the X chromosome, respectively. Conclusions: This study elucidates the different regulatory and DNA binding activities of three Fru(M) isoforms on a genome-wide scale and identifies genes regulated by these isoforms. These results add to our understanding of sex chromosome biology and further support the hypothesis that in some cell-types genes with male-biased expression are enriched on the X chromosome

    Parental social contact in the work place and the risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

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    To study the possible relation between parental social contact through occupation, a marker for a child's risk of infection, and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), the parents of 294 children with ALL aged 0–14.9 years and 376 matched controls were interviewed about their jobs after their child's birth up to the age of 3 years. Job titles were assigned to a level of social contact, and an index of occupational social contact months was created using the level and the job duration. Positive interactions between this index and rural residence associated with an increased risk of childhood ALL and common ALL (c-ALL) were observed (interaction P-value=0.02 for both, using tertiles of contact months; interaction P-value=0.05 and 0.02 for ALL and c-ALL, respectively, using continuous contact months); such findings were not observed when job durations were ignored. Our data suggest that duration of parental occupation may be important when examining the association between parental social contact in the workplace and childhood leukaemia

    SABRE-Relay : A Versatile Route to Hyperpolarization

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    Signal Amplification by Reversible Exchange (SABRE) is used to switch on the latent singlet spin order of para-hydrogen (p-H2) so that it can hyperpolarize a substrate (sub = nicotinamide, nicotinate, niacin, pyrimidine and pyrazine). The substrate then reacts reversibly with [Pt(OTf)2(bis-diphenylphosphinopropane)] by displacing OTf- to form [Pt(OTf)(sub)(bis-diphenylphosphinopropane)]OTf. The 31P NMR signals of these metal complexes prove to be enhanced when the substrate possesses an accessible singlet state or long-lived Zeeman polarization. In the case of pyrazine, the corresponding 31P signal was 105 ± 8 times larger than expected, which equated to an 8-hour reduction in total scan time for an equivalent signal to noise ratio under normal acquisition conditions. Hence p-H2 derived spin order is successfully relayed into a second metal complex via a suitable polarization carrier (sub). When fully developed we expect this route involving a second catalyst to successfully hyperpolarize many classes of substrate that are not amenable to normal SABRE