3,741 research outputs found

    Transition radiation

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    Fermiophobic and other non-minimal neutral Higgs bosons at the LHC

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    The phenomenology of neutral Higgs bosons from non--SUSY, extended Higgs sectors is studied in the context of the LHC, with particular attention given to the case of a fermiophobic Higgs. It is found that enhanced branching ratios to γγ\gamma\gamma and τ+τ−\tau^+\tau^- are possible and can provide clear signatures, while detection of a fermiophobic Higgs will be problematic beyond a mass of 130 GeV.Comment: 16 pages, Latex, 5 figure

    Bodies, technologies and action possibilities: when is an affordance?

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    Borrowed from ecological psychology, the concept of affordances is often said to offer the social study of technology a means of re-framing the question of what is, and what is not, ‘social’ about technological artefacts. The concept, many argue, enables us to chart a safe course between the perils of technological determinism and social constructivism. This article questions the sociological adequacy of the concept as conventionally deployed. Drawing on ethnographic work on the ways technological artefacts engage, and are engaged by, disabled bodies, we propose that the ‘affordances’ of technological objects are not reducible to their material constitution but are inextricably bound up with specific, historically situated modes of engagement and ways of life

    Return to sport and re-tears after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in children and adolescents

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    BACKGROUND: The primary objective of this study was to determine the time to and level of return to sports after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in children and adolescents. The secondary objectives were to evaluate the risk of early ACL re-tear after return to sports and the risk of ACL tear in the contralateral knee. HYPOTHESIS: The time to return to sports in young patients is considerably longer than in adults. METHODS: A prospective multicentre study was conducted at 12 centres specialised in knee ligament surgery, in children and adolescents younger than 18 years, between 1 January 2015 and 31 October 2015. The patients were divided into a paediatric group with open physes and a skeletally mature group with closed physes. We recorded the time to return to sport, the type of sport resumed, and the occurrence of early re-tears on the same side. A poor outcome was defined as a re-tear or an objective IKDC score of C or D. A contralateral ACL tear was not considered a poor outcome. RESULTS: Of 278 included patients, 100 had open physes and 178 closed physes. In the open physes group, return to running occurred after 10.4±4.7 months, return to pivoting/contact sport training after 13.1±3.9 months, and return to pivoting/contact sport competitions after 13.8±3.8 months. Of the 100 patients, 80% returned to the same sport and 63.5% to pivoting/contact sport competitions. Re-tears occurred in 9% of patients, after 11.8±4.1 months, and contralateral tears in 6% of patients, after 17.2±4.4 months. In all, 19.4% of patients had a poor outcome, including 10.4% with an IKDC score of C or D and 9% with re-tears. In the group with closed physes, return to running occurred after 8.8±5.1 months, return to pivoting/contact sport training after 11.7±4.7 months, and return to pivoting/contact sport competitions after 12.3±4.2 months. Of the 178 patients, 76.9% returned to the same sport and 55.6% to pivoting/contact sport competitions. The re-tear rate was only 2.8% and the contralateral tear rate 5%. In all, 14.7% of patients had poor outcome, including 11.9% with an IKDC score of C or D and 2.8% with re-tears. No risk factors for re-tears were identified; the quadruple-bundle semitendinosus technique showed a non-significant association with re-tears. CONCLUSION: In young children, the return to sport time after ACL reconstruction is considerably longer than 1 year and the return to competitions occurs later and is more difficult. The results of this study indicate that reservations are in order when informing the family about return to sports prospects after ACL reconstruction. The return to pivoting/contact sport competitions should not be allowed until 14 months after surgery in young skeletally immature patients, and the risk of re-injury is high within the first 2 years. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV, retrospective study

    Energy Linearity and Resolution of the ATLAS Electromagnetic Barrel Calorimeter in an Electron Test-Beam

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    A module of the ATLAS electromagnetic barrel liquid argon calorimeter was exposed to the CERN electron test-beam at the H8 beam line upgraded for precision momentum measurement. The available energies of the electron beam ranged from 10 to 245 GeV. The electron beam impinged at one point corresponding to a pseudo-rapidity of eta=0.687 and an azimuthal angle of phi=0.28 in the ATLAS coordinate system. A detailed study of several effects biasing the electron energy measurement allowed an energy reconstruction procedure to be developed that ensures a good linearity and a good resolution. Use is made of detailed Monte Carlo simulations based on Geant which describe the longitudinal and transverse shower profiles as well as the energy distributions. For electron energies between 15 GeV and 180 GeV the deviation of the measured incident electron energy over the beam energy is within 0.1%. The systematic uncertainty of the measurement is about 0.1% at low energies and negligible at high energies. The energy resolution is found to be about 10% sqrt(E) for the sampling term and about 0.2% for the local constant term

    Determination of the branching ratios Γ(KL→3π0)/Γ(KL→π+π−π0)\Gamma (K_L \to 3 \pi^0) / \Gamma (K_L \to \pi^+ \pi^- \pi^0) and Γ(KL→3π0)/Γ(KL→πeν)\Gamma (K_L \to 3 \pi^0) / \Gamma (K_L \to \pi e \nu )

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    Improved branching ratios were measured for the KL→3π0K_L \to 3 \pi^0 decay in a neutral beam at the CERN SPS with the NA31 detector: Γ(KL→3π0)/Γ(KL→π+π−π0)=1.611±0.037\Gamma (K_L \to 3 \pi^0) / \Gamma (K_L \to \pi^+ \pi^- \pi^0) = 1.611 \pm 0.037 and Γ(KL→3π0)/Γ(KL→πeν)=0.545±0.010\Gamma (K_L \to 3 \pi^0) / \Gamma (K_L \to \pi e \nu ) = 0.545 \pm 0.010. From the first number an upper limit for ΔI=5/2\Delta I =5/2 and ΔI=7/2\Delta I = 7/2 transitions in neutral kaon decay is derived. Using older results for the Ke3/Kμ\mu 3 fraction, the 3π0\pi^0 branching ratio is found to be Γ(KL→3π0)/Γtot=(0.211±0.003)\Gamma (K_L \to 3 \pi^0 )/ \Gamma_{tot} = (0.211 \pm 0.003), about a factor three more precise than from previous experiments

    Position resolution and particle identification with the ATLAS EM calorimeter

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    In the years between 2000 and 2002 several pre-series and series modules of the ATLAS EM barrel and end-cap calorimeter were exposed to electron, photon and pion beams. The performance of the calorimeter with respect to its finely segmented first sampling has been studied. The polar angle resolution has been found to be in the range 50-60 mrad/sqrt(E (GeV)). The neutral pion rejection has been measured to be about 3.5 for 90% photon selection efficiency at pT=50 GeV/c. Electron-pion separation studies have indicated that a pion fake rate of (0.07-0.5)% can be achieved while maintaining 90% electron identification efficiency for energies up to 40 GeV.Comment: 32 pages, 22 figures, to be published in NIM

    Onboarding AI

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    In a 2018 Workforce Institute survey of 3,000 managers across eight industrialized nations, the majority of respondents described artificial intelligence as a valuable productivity tool. But respondents to that survey also expressed fears that AI would take their jobs. They are not alone. The Guardian recently reported that in the UK “more than 6 million workers fear being replaced by machines AI’s advantages can be cast in a dark light: Why would humans be needed when machines can do a better job? To allay such fears, employers must set AI up to succeed rather than to fail. The authors draw on their own and others’ research and consulting on AI and information systems implementation, along with organizational studies of innovation and work practices, to present a four-phase approach to implementing AI. It allows organizations to cultivate people’s trust—a key condition for adoption—and to work toward a distributed cognitive system in which humans and artificial intelligence both continually improv

    The glutathione biosynthetic pathway of Plasmodium is essential for mosquito transmission

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    1Infection of red blood cells (RBC) subjects the malaria parasite to oxidative stress. Therefore, efficient antioxidant and redox systems are required to prevent damage by reactive oxygen species. Plasmodium spp. have thioredoxin and glutathione (GSH) systems that are thought to play a major role as antioxidants during blood stage infection. In this report, we analyzed a critical component of the GSH biosynthesis pathway using reverse genetics. Plasmodium berghei parasites lacking expression of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS), the rate limiting enzyme in de novo synthesis of GSH, were generated through targeted gene disruption thus demonstrating, quite unexpectedly, that γ-GCS is not essential for blood stage development. Despite a significant reduction in GSH levels, blood stage forms of pbggcs− parasites showed only a defect in growth as compared to wild type. In contrast, a dramatic effect on development of the parasites in the mosquito was observed. Infection of mosquitoes with pbggcs− parasites resulted in reduced numbers of stunted oocysts that did not produce sporozoites. These results have important implications for the design of drugs aiming at interfering with the GSH redox-system in blood stages and demonstrate that de novo synthesis of GSH is pivotal for development of Plasmodium in the mosquito

    A precision measurement of direct CP violation in the decay of neutral kaons into two pions

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    The direct CP violation parameter Re(epsilon'/epsilon) has been measured from the decay rates of neutral kaons into two pions using the NA48 detector at the CERN SPS. The 2001 running period was devoted to collecting additional data under varied conditions compared to earlier years (1997-99). The new data yield the result: Re(epsilon'/epsilon) = (13.7 +/- 3.1) times 10^{-4}. Combining this result with that published from the 1997, 98 and 99 data, an overall value of Re(epsilon'/epsilon) = (14.7 +/- 2.2) times 10^{-4} is obtained from the NA48 experiment.Comment: 19 pages, 5 figures, to be published in Physics Letters
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