8,874 research outputs found

    Collisional excitation of water by hydrogen atoms

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    We present quantum dynamical calculations that describe the rotational excitation of H2_2O due to collisions with H atoms. We used a recent, high accuracy potential energy surface, and solved the collisional dynamics with the close-coupling formalism, for total energies up to 12 000 cm‚ąí1^{-1}. From these calculations, we obtained collisional rate coefficients for the first 45 energy levels of both ortho- and para-H2_2O and for temperatures in the range T = 5-1500 K. These rate coefficients are subsequently compared to the values previously published for the H2_2O / He and H2_2O / H2_2 collisional systems. It is shown that no simple relation exists between the three systems and that specific calculations are thus mandatory

    Upper bound on the density of Ruelle resonances for Anosov flows

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    Using a semiclassical approach we show that the spectrum of a smooth Anosov vector field V on a compact manifold is discrete (in suitable anisotropic Sobolev spaces) and then we provide an upper bound for the density of eigenvalues of the operator (-i)V, called Ruelle resonances, close to the real axis and for large real parts.Comment: 57 page

    High power semiconductor switches in the 12 kV, 50 kA pulse generator of the SPS beam dump kicker system

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    Horizontal deflection of the beam in the dump kicker system of the CERN SPS accelerator is obtained with a series of fast pulsed magnets. The high current pulses of 50 kA per magnet are generated with capacitor discharge type generators which, combined with a resistive free-wheel diode circuit, deliver a critically damped half-sine current with a rise-time of 25 ms. Each generator consists of two 25 kA units, connected in parallel to a magnet via a low inductance transmission line

    South America: a reservoir of continental carbon - first estimate of changes since 18,000 yr BP

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    By using geographic and palaeogeographic sketches established for the present situation (before recent deforestation) and for the glacial maximum (about 15,000-18,000 BP) we can estimate the possible total biomass (phytomass) of the South American continent. According to the biomass density used in this first estimate for ten major ecosystems, the results show a possible increase from 140 Gt of carbon (glacial maximum) to 214 Gt C (preindustrial) for the phytomass, and 120 to 180 Gt C for the soils. These preliminary results are possibly only a 60 or 70 percent approximate estimate and could be modified with computation using other palaeogeographic models or another biomass density. It is therefore to underline the urgent need of more field biomass measurements, ecosystems mappings, and palaeostudies to evaluate the part of South America as a future possible sink for the atmospheric carbon dioxide. The Amazonian forest makes of South America an important continental reservoir of carbon for the planet Earth. This continent represents consequently a key zone for the research and knowledge of changes in the biogeochemical cycle of carbon. In order to evaluate more precisely the role it plays we estimated the approximate quantities of carbon in the total phytomass and the carbon in soils for each of the ecosystems represented in Figure 1, both for Present and Last Glacial Maximum landscapes

    High-energy acceleration phenomena in extreme radiation-plasma interactions

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    We simulate, using a particle-in-cell code, the chain of acceleration processes at work during the Compton-based interaction of a dilute electron-ion plasma with an extreme-intensity, incoherent gamma-ray flux with a photon density several orders of magnitude above the particle density. The plasma electrons are initially accelerated in the radiative flux direction through Compton scattering. In turn, the charge-separation field from the induced current drives forward the plasma ions to near-relativistic speed and accelerates backwards the non-scattered electrons to energies easily exceeding those of the driving photons. The dynamics of those energized electrons is determined by the interplay of electrostatic acceleration, bulk plasma motion, inverse Compton scattering and deflections off the mobile magnetic fluctuations generated by a Weibel-type instability. The latter Fermi-like effect notably gives rise to a forward-directed suprathermal electron tail. We provide simple analytical descriptions for most of those phenomena and examine numerically their sensitivity to the parameters of the problem

    Plant sphingolipids: their importance in cellular organization and adaption

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    Sphingolipids and their phosphorylated derivatives are ubiquitous bio-active components of cells. They are structural elements in the lipid bilayer and contribute to the dynamic nature of the membrane. They have been implicated in many cellular processes in yeast and animal cells, including aspects of signaling, apoptosis, and senescence. Although sphingolipids have a better defined role in animal systems, they have been shown to be central to many essential processes in plants including but not limited to, pollen development, signal transduction and in the response to biotic and abiotic stress. A fuller understanding of the roles of sphingolipids within plants has been facilitated by classical biochemical studies and the identification of mutants of model species. Recently the development of powerful mass spectrometry techniques hailed the advent of the emerging field of lipidomics enabling more accurate sphingolipid detection and quantitation. This review will consider plant sphingolipid biosynthesis and function in the context of these new developments. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Lipid Biology edited by Kent D. Chapman and Ivo Feussner

    On the influence of collisional rate coefficients on the water vapour excitation

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    Water is a key molecule in many astrophysical studies. Its high dipole moment makes this molecule to be subthermally populated under the typical conditions of most astrophysical objects. This motivated the calculation of various sets of collisional rate coefficients (CRC) for H2_2O (with He or H2_2) which are necessary to model its rotational excitation and line emission. We performed accurate non--local non--LTE radiative transfer calculations using different sets of CRC in order to predict the line intensities from transitions that involve the lowest energy levels of H2_2O (E << 900 K). The results obtained from the different CRC sets are then compared using line intensity ratio statistics. For the whole range of physical conditions considered in this work, we obtain that the intensities based on the quantum and QCT CRC are in good agreement. However, at relatively low H2_2 volume density (nn(H2_2) << 107^7 cm‚ąí3^{-3}) and low water abundance (Ōá\chi(H2_2O) << 10‚ąí6^{-6}), these physical conditions being relevant to describe most molecular clouds, we find differences in the predicted line intensities of up to a factor of ‚ąľ\sim 3 for the bulk of the lines. Most of the recent studies interpreting early Herschel Space Observatory spectra used the QCT CRC. Our results show that although the global conclusions from those studies will not be drastically changed, each case has to be considered individually, since depending on the physical conditions, the use of the QCT CRC may lead to a mis--estimate of the water vapour abundance of up to a factor of ‚ąľ\sim 3

    Giant Anisotropy of Spin-Orbit Splitting at the Bismuth Surface

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    We investigate the bismuth (111) surface by means of time and angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. The parallel detection of the surface states below and above the Fermi level reveals a giant anisotropy of the Spin-Orbit (SO) spitting. These strong deviations from the Rashba-like coupling cannot be treated in k‚čÖp\textbf{k}\cdot \textbf{p} perturbation theory. Instead, first principle calculations could accurately reproduce the experimental dispersion of the electronic states. Our analysis shows that the giant anisotropy of the SO splitting is due to a large out-of plane buckling of the spin and orbital texture.Comment: 5 pages, 4 figure
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