6,286 research outputs found

    Psychological well-being and perceived financial performance: An SME perspective

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    Psychological well-being is influenced by the ‚Äúsurrounding contexts of people‚Äôs lives‚ÄĚ and has consistently been found to be associated with positive outcomes. Given the turbulent surrounding contexts facing SME owners in South Africa, the primary objective of this study was to investigate their level of psychological well-being and to establish the influence thereof on the financial performance of their businesses. A survey using a structured questionnaire was used to gather the necessary data. The population consisted of all owners of SMEs operating within the borders of the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. Criterion and convenience sampling were used and questionnaires were administered by field workers. In total 495 questionnaires were useable for statistical analysis. Scale validity and reliability was assessed, descriptive statistics calculated and Pearson‚Äôs product moment correlations established. Multiple regression analysis was undertaken to investigate the hypothesised relationships. The results show that the participating SME owners have high levels of positive psychological well-being and that their businesses are performing financially. The results also suggest that the more SME owners display the attributes associated with environmental mastery, self-acceptance and autonomy, the more likely their SMEs are to perform financially

    Starting to Stop: Young Offenders' Desistance from Crime

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    This paper explores the complexities of the interplay between structural and agentic changes in 21 young offenders' lives as they start to stop offending. The young people's ability to desist from crime was dependent upon their engagement with a 'hook for change', their development of prosocial relationships and 'knifing off' of elements of their offending past, the extent of their identity change, and their confidence about desistance. Desistance was less likely in the absence of a 'hook' and where offenders were running a 'condemnation script'. The study challenges previous research that argues that desistance from crime in adolescence is unlikely

    Childhood predictors and adult life success of adolescent delinquency abstainers

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    While much is known about adolescent delinquency, considerably less attention has been given to adolescent delinquency abstention. Understanding how or why some adolescents manage to abstain from delinquency during adolescence is informative for understanding and preventing adolescent (minor) delinquency. Using data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development (N‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ411 males) to compare abstainers, self-report delinquents and convicted delinquents we found five childhood factors (ages 8-10) that predicted adolescent abstention (ages 10-18). First, we find that adolescent abstainers possess characteristics opposite to those of convicted delinquents (namely, abstainers are high on honesty, conformity and family income). However, we also found that abstainers also share some childhood characteristics with convicted delinquents (namely, low popularity and low school achievement). A latent class analysis indicated that the mixed factors predicting abstention can be accounted for by two groups of abstainers: an adaptive group characterized by high honesty, and a maladaptive group characterized by low popularity and low school achievement. Further, validation of these two types of abstainers using data collected at age 48 suggested that adaptive abstainers outperform all other adolescents in general life success, whereas maladaptive abstainers only fare better than delinquent adolescents in terms of lower substance use and delinquency later in life

    Investigating value-laden leadership styles among family business owners

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    Given the need for a different approach to leadership, as well as the need for further investigation on leadership among family businesses, this study investigates several value-laden leadership styles among family businesses. More specifically the primary objective is to establish the levels of Servant, Ethical, Authentic, and Participative leadership displayed by family business owners and the influence thereof on the Perceived business performance of the family business. A survey was undertaken and 266 usable questionnaires were returned from 133 family business owners and 133 from family business employees. The data analysis involved calculating descriptive statistics and undertaking t-tests. Multiple regression analysis (MRA) was done to test the hypothesised relationships. Although the MRA analysis revealed no statistically significant relationships between the leadership styles investigated and Perceived business performance, the vast majority of respondents agreed that the styles investigated were displayed by the family business owners. For both sample groups Ethical leadership returned the highest mean score, followed by Servant and Participative leadership. The importance of these value-laden leadership styles to family businesses is thus highlighted, contradicting the literature that family businesses owners are often autocratic in their leadership style. In addition, increased clarity on the effectiveness of these value-laden leadership styles within the context of family business is provided

    Fundamental Properties of Cool Stars with Interferometry

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    We present measurements of fundamental astrophysical properties of nearby, low-mass, K- and M-dwarfs from our DISCOS survey (DIameterS of COol Stars). The principal goal of our study is the determination of linear radii and effective temperatures for these stars. We calculate their radii from angular diameter measurements using the CHARA Array and Hipparcos distances. Combined with bolometric flux measurements based on literature photometry, we use our angular diameter results to calculate their effective surface temperatures. We present preliminary results established on an assortment of empirical relations to the stellar effective temperature and radius that are based upon these measurements. We elaborate on the discrepancy seen between theoretical and observed stellar radii, previously claimed to be related to stellar activity and/or metallicity. Our preliminary conclusion, however, is that convection plays a larger role in the determination of radii of these late-type stars. Understanding the source of the radius disagreement is likely to impact other areas of study for low-mass stars, such as the detection and characterization of extrasolar planets in the habitable zones.Comment: Contribution to Proceedings of Cool Stars 16 Workshop; 8 pages in ASP format; 9 figure
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