66 research outputs found

    Fluorescence and colour as markers for the Maillard reaction in milk-cereal based infants foods during storage

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    [EN] Free and total fluorescence compounds and color formation were measured in three different milk-cereal based infant foods stored at 25, 30 and 37 degrees C for 9 months to evaluate the advanced and final stages of the Maillard reaction. Milk-cereal infant foods containing honey (13) or fruits (C) had fluorescent values higher than sample (A) without them. This difference could be ascribed to the higher monosaccharide (fructose and/or glucose) content of (B) and (C), which could increase susceptibility to the Maillard reaction. However, for color increase (Delta E), no significant differences (p < 0.05) among the three types of samples were found. During the storage period, a gradual increase in fluorescence and color was observed, and statistically significant differences among the three temperatures studied were detected, the values being greater at 37 degrees C than at 30 degrees C and 25 degrees C. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Bosch, L.; AlegrĂ­a, A.; Farre, R.; Clemente MarĂ­n, G. (2007). Fluorescence and colour as markers for the Maillard reaction in milk-cereal based infants foods during storage. Food Chemistry. 105(3):1135-1143. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.02.16S11351143105

    Disposition of Phytocannabinoids, Their Acidic Precursors and Their Metabolites in Biological Matrices of Healthy Individuals Treated with Vaporized Medical Cannabis

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    Inhalation by vaporization is a useful application mode for medical cannabis. In this study, we present the disposition of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), their acidic precursors, and their metabolites in serum, oral fluid, and urine together with the acute pharmacological effects in 14 healthy individuals treated with vaporized medical cannabis. THC and CBD peaked firstly in serum and then in oral fluid, with higher concentrations in the first biological matrices and consequent higher area under the curve AUCs. Acidic precursors Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (THCA) and cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) showed a similar time course profile but lower concentrations due to the fact that vaporization partly decarboxylated these compounds. All THC and CBD metabolites showed a later onset with respect to the parent compounds in the absorption phase and a slower decrease to baseline. In agreement with serum kinetics, THC-COOH-GLUC and 7-COOH-CBD were the significantly most excreted THC and CBD metabolites. The administration of vaporized medical cannabis induced prototypical effects associated with the administration of cannabis or THC in humans, with a kinetic trend overlapping that of parent compounds and metabolites in serum. The pharmacokinetics of cannabinoids, their precursors, and their metabolites in biological fluids of individuals treated with vaporized medical cannabis preparations showed a high interindividual variability as in the case of oral medical cannabis decoction and oil. Inhaled medical cannabis was absorbed into the organism earlier than decoction and oil. Cannabinoids reached higher systemic concentrations, also due to the fact that the acid precursors decarboxylated to parent cannabinoids at high temperatures, and consequently, the physiological and subjective effects occurred earlier and resulted with higher intensity. No serious adverse effects were observed

    Disposition of Cannabidiol Metabolites in Serum and Urine from Healthy Individuals Treated with Pharmaceutical Preparations of Medical Cannabis

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    The use of cannabis flowering tops with standardized amounts of active phytocannabinoids was recently authorized in several countries to treat several painful pathological conditions. The acute pharmacological effects and disposition of Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), their acidic precursors and THC metabolites after oil and decoction administration have been already described. In this study, the disposition of CBD metabolites: 7-carboxy-cannabidiol (7-COOH-CBD), 7-hydroxycannabidiol (7-OH-CBD), 6-α-hydroxycannabidiol (6-α-OH-CBD), and 6-β-hydroxycannabidiol (6-β-OH-CBD) in the serum and urine of healthy volunteers was presented. Thirteen healthy volunteers were administered 100 mL of cannabis decoction in the first experimental session and, after 15 days of washout, 0.45 mL of oil. Serum and urine samples were collected at different time points, and the CBD metabolites were quantified by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The most abundant serum metabolite was 7-COOH-CBD, followed by 7-OH-CBD, 6-β-OH-CBD, and6-α-OH-CBD, after decoction and oil. Both 7-OH-CBD and the 6-α-OH-CBD showed similar pharmacokinetic properties following administration of both cannabis preparations, whereas 7-COOH and 6-α-OH-CBD displayed a significant higher bioavailability after decoction consumption. All CBD metabolites were similarly excreted after oil and decoction intake apart from 6-α-OH-CBD, which had a significantly lower excretion after oil administration. The pharmacokinetic characterization of CBD metabolites is crucial for clinical practice since the cannabis herbal preparations are increasingly used for several pathological conditions

    GC-MS/MS Determination of Synthetic Cathinones : 4-chloromethcathinone, N-ethyl Pentedrone, and N-ethyl Hexedrone in Oral Fluid and Sweat of Consumers under Controlled Administration: Pilot Study

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    This study presents a validated GC-MS/MS method for the detection and quantification of 4-chloromethcathinone or clephedrone (4-CMC), N-ethyl Pentedrone (NEP), and N-ethyl Hexedrone (NEH, also named HEXEN) in oral fluid and sweat and verifies its feasibility in determining human oral fluid concentrations and pharmacokinetics following the administration of 100 mg of 4-CMC orally and 30 mg of NEP and NEH intranasally. A total of 48 oral fluid and 12 sweat samples were collected from six consumers. After the addition of 5 ÎĽL of methylone-d and 200 ÎĽL of 0.5 M ammonium hydrogen carbonate, an L/L extraction was carried out using ethyl acetate. The samples, dried under a nitrogen flow, were then derivatized with pentafluoropropionic anhydride and dried again. One microliter of the sample reconstituted in 50 ÎĽL of ethyl acetate was injected into GC-MS/MS. The method was fully validated according to international guidelines. Our results showed how, in oral fluid, the two cathinones taken intranasally were absorbed very rapidly, within the first hour, when compared with the 4-CMC which reached its maximum concentration peak in the first three hours. We observed that these cathinones were excreted in sweat in an amount equivalent to approximately 0.3% of the administered dose for 4-CMC and NEP. The total NEH excreted in sweat 4 h after administration was approximately 0.2% of the administered dose. Our results provide, for the first time, preliminary information about the disposition of these synthetic cathinones in the consumers' oral fluid and sweat after controlled administration
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