401 research outputs found

    Constraints on dark energy from the Ly{\alpha} forest baryon acoustic oscillations measurement of the redshift 2.3 Hubble parameter

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    We use the Busca et al. (2012) measurement of the Hubble parameter at redshift z = 2.3 in conjunction with 21 lower z measurements, from Simon et al. (2005), Gaztanaga et al. (2009), Stern et al. (2010), and Moresco et al. (2012), to place constraints on model parameters of constant and time-evolving dark energy cosmological models. The inclusion of the new Busca et al. (2012) measurement results in H(z) constraints significantly more restrictive than those derived by Farooq et al. (2012). These H(z) constraints are now more restrictive than those that follow from current Type Ia supernova (SNIa) apparent magnitude measurements (Suzuki et al. 2012). The H(z) constraints by themselves require an accelerating cosmological expansion at about 2-sigma confidence level, depending on cosmological model and Hubble constant prior used in the analysis. A joint analysis of H(z), baryon acoustic oscillation peak length scale, and SNIa data favors a spatially-flat cosmological model currently dominated by a time-independent cosmological constant but does not exclude slowly-evolving dark energy density.Comment: 17 Pages, 7 Figures and 1 Table. arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1211.425

    Cosmological constraints from large-scale structure growth rate measurements

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    We compile a list of 1414 independent measurements of large-scale structure growth rate between redshifts 0.067≤z≤0.80.067 \leq z \leq 0.8 and use this to place constraints on model parameters of constant and time-evolving general-relativistic dark energy cosmologies. With the assumption that gravity is well-modeled by general relativity, we discover that growth-rate data provide restrictive cosmological parameter constraints. In combination with type Ia supernova apparent magnitude versus redshift data and Hubble parameter measurements, the growth rate data are consistent with the standard spatially-flat Λ\LambdaCDM model, as well as with mildly evolving dark energy density cosmological models.Comment: 8 pages, 1 table and 3 figure

    Presentation: Small Teaching: Effective Techniques to Scaffold Student Learning in Information Literacy Sessions

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    This presentation highlights ways to incorporate specific questioning prompts as a pedagogical tool, including examples of prompts in deconstructing a topic, identifying resources, platforms, and knowledge gaps, and synthesizing ideas from multiple sources. The focus of this presentation is to illustrate and develop a praxis on how to integrate these examples of question prompts in information literacy instruction sessions for both undergraduate and graduate level courses

    Small Teaching: Effective techniques to scaffold student learning in information literacy instruction sessions.

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    Learning scientists have long advocated for using learning techniques that help students achieve their learning outcomes in a variety of different contexts. These strategies include engaging prior knowledge, elaborative interrogation questions, self-explanation, distributed practice, and testing—all of which bring the processes of comprehension, critical thinking, and synthesis to the explicit attention of the learner. However, the use of strategies such as self-explanations, analogies, and elaborative interrogation prompts that enhance learning by facilitating the various stages of the research process is not fully explored in the context of information literacy instruction. This presentation will highlight ways to incorporate specific questioning prompts as a pedagogical tool, including examples of prompts in deconstructing a topic, identifying resources, platforms, and knowledge gaps, and synthesizing ideas from multiple sources. The focus of this presentation is to illustrate and develop a praxis on how to integrate these examples of question prompts in information literacy instruction sessions for both undergraduate and graduate level courses

    The Effect of Elaborative Interrogation on the Synthesis of Ideas from Multiple Sources of Information

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    The new Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education (ACRL, 2016) highlights the ability to synthesize ideas from multiple sources of information as one of the key knowledge practices as students navigate an increasingly complex information landscape. With the introduction of this new document, there is a strong need for evidence-based guidance for information literacy instruction in academic libraries. There is little generalizable empirical research based on cognitive science principles to guide information literacy instruction practice. The present study examined the effectiveness of elaborative interrogation instructional strategy on integration and transformation of ideas from multiple sources of information. 86 participants took part in the study via Amazon Mechanical Turk platform. The experiment involved reading five texts on the topic of climate change and responding to embedded elaborative interrogation prompts (treatment groups only), and writing a synthesis paragraph on the topic. Contrary to the research hypothesis, the results of descriptive analysis showed that participants in the control group achieved a slightly better performance in transformation measure, as compared to participants in treatment groups. However, two one-way ANCOVAs were employed to test the hypotheses which indicated that elaborative interrogation prompts did not significantly improve performance on transformation and integration measures. This study contributes to the growing body of literature addressing information literacy instruction based on the new Framework and provides a promising long-term cross-disciplinary research partnership in terms of linking evidence-based guidance for instruction based on cognitive science principles to information literacy knowledge practices in the new Framework

    Explanations, Analogies, and Elaborations: Incorporating Questioning Prompts in Instruction Sessions

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    Educational psychologists have long studied and advocated for using learning techniques that help students achieve their learning outcomes in a variety of different contexts. These strategies include elaborative interrogation and self-explanation, which bring the processes of comprehension and synthesis to the explicit attention of the learner. A similar case can be made for the use of strategies such as self-explanations, analogies, and elaborative interrogation prompts that enhance learning by facilitating the various stages of the research process. This presentation highlights ways to incorporate specific questioning prompts as a pedagogical tool including examples of prompts in deconstructing a topic, identifying resources, platforms, and knowledge gaps, and synthesizing ideas from multiple sources. The focus of this presentation is to illustrate and engage participants on how to embed these examples of question prompts in their information literacy sessions

    The Effect of Elaborative Interrogation on the Synthesis of Ideas from Multiple Sources of Information

    Get PDF
    The new Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education (ACRL, 2016) highlights the ability to synthesize ideas from multiple sources of information as one of the key knowledge practices. There is little generalizable empirical research based on cognitive science principles to guide information literacy instruction practice. The present study examined the effectiveness of elaborative interrogation instructional strategy on integration and transformation of ideas from multiple sources of information. 86 participants took part in the study via Amazon Mechanical Turk platform. The experiment involved reading five texts on the topic of climate change and responding to embedded elaborative interrogation prompts (treatment groups only), and writing a synthesis paragraph on the topic. Two one-way ANCOVAs were employed to test the hypotheses which indicated that elaborative interrogation prompts did not significantly improve performance on transformation and integration measures. This study contributes to the growing body of literature addressing information literacy instruction based on the new Framework and provides a promising long-term cross-disciplinary research partnership in terms of linking evidence based guidance for instruction based on cognitive science principles to information literacy knowledge practices in the new Framework
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