227 research outputs found

    Self-directed self-management interventions to prevent or address distress in young people with long-term physical conditions: a rapid review.

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    Background: Comorbid distress in adolescents and young adults with physical long‐ term conditions (LTCs) is common but can be difficult to identify and manage. Self‐ directed self‐management interventions to reduce distress and improve wellbeing may be beneficial. It is unknown, however, which intervention characteristics are successful in supporting young people. This rapid review aimed to identify characteristics of self‐directed self‐management interventions that aimed, in whole or part, to address distress, wellbeing or self‐efficacy in this population. Methods: A systematic search was conducted for relevant controlled studies in six databases. Data on study settings, population, intervention characteristics, outcome measures, process measures and summary effects were extracted. The risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool v1, and the strength of evidence was rated (informed by Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations). Patient and public involvement members supported the review process, including interpretation of results. The rapid review was registered with PROSPERO (ID: CRD42021285867). Results: Fourteen studies were included, all of which were randomised trials. Heterogeneity was identified in the health conditions targeted; type of intervention; outcome measures; duration of intervention and follow‐up. Three had distress, wellbeing or self‐efficacy as their primary outcome. Four modes of delivery were identified across interventions—websites, smartphone applications, text messages and workbooks; and within these, 38 individual components. Six interventions had a significant benefit in mental health, wellbeing or self‐efficacy; however, intervention characteristics were similar for beneficial and non‐beneficial interventions. Conclusions: There is a paucity of interventions directly targeting distress and wellbeing in young people with physical LTCs. In those identified, the heterogeneity of interventions and study design makes it difficult to identify which characteristics result in positive outcomes. We propose the need for high‐quality, evidence‐based self‐management interventions for this population; including (1) more detailed reporting of intervention design, content and delivery; (2) robust process evaluation; (3) a core outcome set for measuring mental health and wellbeing for self‐ management interventions and (4) consistency in follow up periods. Public Contribution: Seven young people with an LTC were involved throughout the rapid review, from the development of the review protocol where they informed the focus and aims, with a central role in the interpretation of findings.peer-reviewe

    Access to psychological support for young people following stoma surgery : exploring patients’ and clinicians’ perspectives

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    Psychological problems are common among people with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) following stoma surgery. However, the ways in which stoma-related psychological needs are identified and addressed in health care settings remain unexplored. In this study, we investigated the perspectives of young people with a stoma and health care professionals about access to psychological support. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with young people with an IBD stoma (18–29 years, n = 13) and health care professionals (n = 15), including colorectal surgeons, gastroenterologists, specialist nurses in IBD and stoma care, and general practitioners in England. Data collection and analysis were informed by constructivist grounded theory. Three analytic categories were developed: “initiating support-seeking,” “affirming psychological needs,” and “mobilizing psychological support,” which capture young peoples’ trajectory to access psychological support. Based on the findings, we highlight the need for both patients and health care professionals to assign greater priority to the identification of psychological symptoms post-stoma surgery. More effective care pathways, which include responsive psychological services, would enhance access to psychological support for young people with a stoma.peer-reviewe

    Healthcare professionals’ priorities for training to identify and manage distress experienced by young people with a stoma due to inflammatory bowel disease: a consensus study using online nominal group technique

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    Young people with a stoma due to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) commonly experience distress; however, this is not always well managed in clinical settings. More effective support may/is likely to reduce the possibility of individuals experiencing sustained distress, which may engender depression or anxiety. This study aimed to gain consensus among a multidisciplinary group of healthcare professionals (HCPs) on priorities for training in the identification and management of distress in this population. One of the authors is a young person with a stoma. Design Participants were recruited through Twitter (X) and the researchers’ clinical/research contacts. Two consensus group meetings were conducted using Nominal Group Technique, involving participants generating, discussing and rating on a Likert scale, topics for inclusion in an HCP training package. Setting Online video conferencing. Participants were located across England, with one based in the USA. Participants Nineteen HCPs participated: three general practitioners, three stoma nurses, two IBD nurses, nine clinical psychologists and two gastroenterologists. Results Twenty-five topics were generated by participants; 19 reached consensus of ≥80%, that is, a mean of ≥5.6 on a 7-point Likert scale. These included: recognising and validating different levels of, and variation in, distress; tackling stigma and normalising having a stoma; everyday practicalities of stoma management, including food and sleep; opening and holding conversations about stoma-related distress; considering the impact of different cultural beliefs on adaptation after stoma surgery; training in simple techniques for gauging the patient’s distress during clinical encounters; having conversations about body image; and myth-busting common fears, such as odour. Conclusions This study is the first to identify HCP training priorities for managing stoma-related distress in young people. Consensus was reached for 19 topics, reflecting the varied needs of young people with a stoma. Findings will inform development of a training package for HCPs treating young people with IBD and a stoma.peer-reviewe

    Young people’s priorities for the self-management of distress after stoma surgery due to inflammatory bowel disease: a consensus study using online nominal group technique

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    Abstract Introduction: The aim of this study was to gain consensus among young people with a stoma due to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) on the priorities for the content of an intervention for the self-management of stoma-related distress. The current identification and management of distress in young people with a stoma is often sub-optimal in clinical settings and there is a need for improved support resources.Methods: Two consensus group meetings were carried out via online video conferencing, using Nominal Group Technique. Participants generated, rated on a Likert scale and discussed, topics for inclusion in a future self-management intervention.Results: Nineteen young people, aged 19-33, with a stoma due to IBD took part in one of two group meetings. Participants were located across England, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. Twenty-nine topics were generated by participants, seven of which reached consensus of &gt;80%, that is, a mean of &gt;5.6 on a 7-point Likert scale. These were: receiving advice from young people with lived experience of stoma surgery; advice on/ addressing concerns about romantic relationships, sex and intimacy; information about fertility and pregnancy related to stoma surgery; stoma ‘hacks’, e.g. useful everyday tips regarding clothing, making bag changes easier etc.; reflecting on and recognising own emotional response to surgery; tips on managing the stoma during the night; and processing trauma related to the illness and surgery journey.Conclusions: Findings extend previous research on young people’s experiences of stoma surgery, by generating consensus on young peoples’ priorities for managing distress related to surgery and living with a stoma. These priorities include topics not previously reported in the literature, including the need for information about fertility and pregnancy. Findings will inform the development of a self-management resource for young people with an IBD stoma and have relevance for the clinical management of stoma-related distress in this population.<br/

    Healthcare professionals’ priorities for training to identify and manage distress experienced by young people with a stoma due to inflammatory bowel disease: a consensus study using online nominal group technique

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    Young people with a stoma due to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) commonly experience distress; however, this is not always well managed in clinical settings. More effective support may/is likely to reduce the possibility of individuals experiencing sustained distress, which may engender depression or anxiety. This study aimed to gain consensus among a multidisciplinary group of healthcare professionals (HCPs) on priorities for training in the identification and management of distress in this population. One of the authors is a young person with a stoma. Design Participants were recruited through Twitter (X) and the researchers’ clinical/research contacts. Two consensus group meetings were conducted using Nominal Group Technique, involving participants generating, discussing and rating on a Likert scale, topics for inclusion in an HCP training package. Setting Online video conferencing. Participants were located across England, with one based in the USA. Participants Nineteen HCPs participated: three general practitioners, three stoma nurses, two IBD nurses, nine clinical psychologists and two gastroenterologists. Results Twenty-five topics were generated by participants; 19 reached consensus of ≥80%, that is, a mean of ≥5.6 on a 7-point Likert scale. These included: recognising and validating different levels of, and variation in, distress; tackling stigma and normalising having a stoma; everyday practicalities of stoma management, including food and sleep; opening and holding conversations about stoma-related distress; considering the impact of different cultural beliefs on adaptation after stoma surgery; training in simple techniques for gauging the patient’s distress during clinical encounters; having conversations about body image; and myth-busting common fears, such as odour. Conclusions This study is the first to identify HCP training priorities for managing stoma-related distress in young people. Consensus was reached for 19 topics, reflecting the varied needs of young people with a stoma. Findings will inform development of a training package for HCPs treating young people with IBD and a stoma.peer-reviewe

    Hysteresis of Electronic Transport in Graphene Transistors

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    Graphene field effect transistors commonly comprise graphene flakes lying on SiO2 surfaces. The gate-voltage dependent conductance shows hysteresis depending on the gate sweeping rate/range. It is shown here that the transistors exhibit two different kinds of hysteresis in their electrical characteristics. Charge transfer causes a positive shift in the gate voltage of the minimum conductance, while capacitive gating can cause the negative shift of conductance with respect to gate voltage. The positive hysteretic phenomena decay with an increase of the number of layers in graphene flakes. Self-heating in helium atmosphere significantly removes adsorbates and reduces positive hysteresis. We also observed negative hysteresis in graphene devices at low temperature. It is also found that an ice layer on/under graphene has much stronger dipole moment than a water layer does. Mobile ions in the electrolyte gate and a polarity switch in the ferroelectric gate could also cause negative hysteresis in graphene transistors. These findings improved our understanding of the electrical response of graphene to its surroundings. The unique sensitivity to environment and related phenomena in graphene deserve further studies on nonvolatile memory, electrostatic detection and chemically driven applications.Comment: 13 pages, 6 Figure

    Evolutionary connectionism: algorithmic principles underlying the evolution of biological organisation in evo-devo, evo-eco and evolutionary transitions

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    The mechanisms of variation, selection and inheritance, on which evolution by natural selection depends, are not fixed over evolutionary time. Current evolutionary biology is increasingly focussed on understanding how the evolution of developmental organisations modifies the distribution of phenotypic variation, the evolution of ecological relationships modifies the selective environment, and the evolution of reproductive relationships modifies the heritability of the evolutionary unit. The major transitions in evolution, in particular, involve radical changes in developmental, ecological and reproductive organisations that instantiate variation, selection and inheritance at a higher level of biological organisation. However, current evolutionary theory is poorly equipped to describe how these organisations change over evolutionary time and especially how that results in adaptive complexes at successive scales of organisation (the key problem is that evolution is self-referential, i.e. the products of evolution change the parameters of the evolutionary process). Here we first reinterpret the central open questions in these domains from a perspective that emphasises the common underlying themes. We then synthesise the findings from a developing body of work that is building a new theoretical approach to these questions by converting well-understood theory and results from models of cognitive learning. Specifically, connectionist models of memory and learning demonstrate how simple incremental mechanisms, adjusting the relationships between individually-simple components, can produce organisations that exhibit complex system-level behaviours and improve the adaptive capabilities of the system. We use the term “evolutionary connectionism” to recognise that, by functionally equivalent processes, natural selection acting on the relationships within and between evolutionary entities can result in organisations that produce complex system-level behaviours in evolutionary systems and modify the adaptive capabilities of natural selection over time. We review the evidence supporting the functional equivalences between the domains of learning and of evolution, and discuss the potential for this to resolve conceptual problems in our understanding of the evolution of developmental, ecological and reproductive organisations and, in particular, the major evolutionary transitions

    The analysis of gut microbiota in patients with bile acid diarrhoea treated with colesevelam

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    © 2023 The Authors. Published by Frontiers Media. This is an open access article available under a Creative Commons licence. The published version can be accessed at the following link on the publisher’s website: https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2023.1134105Introduction: Bile acid diarrhoea (BAD) is a common disorder that results from an increased loss of primary bile acids and can result in a change in microbiome. The aims of this study were to characterise the microbiome in different cohorts of patients with BAD and to determine if treatment with a bile acid sequestrant, colesevelam, can alter the microbiome and improve microbial diversity. Materials and methods: Patients with symptoms of diarrhoea underwent 75-selenium homocholic acid (75SeHCAT) testing and were categorised into four cohorts: idiopathic BAD, post-cholecystectomy BAD, post-operative Crohn’s disease BAD and 75SeHCAT negative control group. Patients with a positive 75SeHCAT (<15%) were given a trial of treatment with colesevelam. Stool samples were collected pre-treatment, 4-weeks, 8-weeks and 6–12 months post-treatment. Faecal 16S ribosomal RNA gene analysis was undertaken. Results: A total of 257 samples were analysed from 134 patients. α-diversity was significantly reduced in patients with BAD and more specifically, in the idiopathic BAD cohort and in patients with severe disease (SeHCAT <5%); p < 0.05. Colesevelam did not alter bacterial α/β-diversity but patients who clinically responded to treatment had a significantly greater abundance of Fusobacteria and Ruminococcus, both of which aid in the conversion of primary to secondary bile acids. Conclusion: This is the first study to examine treatment effects on the microbiome in BAD, which demonstrated a possible association with colesevelam on the microbiome through bile acid modulation in clinical responders. Larger studies are now needed to establish a causal relationship with colesevelam and the inter-crosstalk between bile acids and the microbiome.The research department of MB received project funding from Bowel and Cancer Research for part of this work. The research department of MB received project funding from an unrestricted grant from Tillotts Pharma for part of this work.Published versio

    Do Consumption-Based Asset Pricing Models Explain Serial Dependence in Stock Returns?

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    We show that the Bansal-Yaron, Campbell-Cochrane and Cecchetti-Lam-Mark models of asset prices cannot explain the serial correlation structure of stock returns. We show this by estimating these models and deriving expected returns from them and then testing whether the difference between observed and expected returns is a martingale difference sequence. We use variance ratio and rescaled range tests which we modify to account for the expected returns being functions of estimated parameters. We also use a weighted quantilogram test based on a bootstrap procedure robust to this estimation. The evidence against the BansalYaron and Campbell-Cochrane models is significant. While the evidence against the Cecchetti-Lam-Mark model is not in general significant, our point estimates strongly suggest its residuals are not a martingale difference sequence. Furthermore, a semi-parametric maximal predictability test suggests there is some evidence that the three models’ state variables struggle to explain the degree of predictability observed in the market return. A timing strategy designed to exploit predictability in the market can significantly outperform the market in certainty equivalent terms under the Bansal-Yaron model. The timing strategy may underperform the market by less than it ought to under the Campbell-Cochrane model
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