2,783 research outputs found

    Size-structured populations: immigration, (bi)stability and the net growth rate

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    We consider a class of physiologically structured population models, a first order nonlinear partial differential equation equipped with a nonlocal boundary condition, with a constant external inflow of individuals. We prove that the linearised system is governed by a quasicontraction semigroup. We also establish that linear stability of equilibrium solutions is governed by a generalized net reproduction function. In a special case of the model ingredients we discuss the nonlinear dynamics of the system when the spectral bound of the linearised operator equals zero, i.e. when linearisation does not decide stability. This allows us to demonstrate, through a concrete example, how immigration might be beneficial to the population. In particular, we show that from a nonlinearly unstable positive equilibrium a linearly stable and unstable pair of equilibria bifurcates. In fact, the linearised system exhibits bistability, for a certain range of values of the external inflow, induced potentially by All\'{e}e-effect.Comment: to appear in Journal of Applied Mathematics and Computin

    Nonlinear preferential rewiring in fixed-size networks as a diffusion process

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    We present an evolving network model in which the total numbers of nodes and edges are conserved, but in which edges are continuously rewired according to nonlinear preferential detachment and reattachment. Assuming power-law kernels with exponents alpha and beta, the stationary states the degree distributions evolve towards exhibit a second order phase transition - from relatively homogeneous to highly heterogeneous (with the emergence of starlike structures) at alpha = beta. Temporal evolution of the distribution in this critical regime is shown to follow a nonlinear diffusion equation, arriving at either pure or mixed power-laws, of exponents -alpha and 1-alpha

    Ratiometric spectral imaging for fast tumor detection and chemotherapy monitoring in vivo

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    We report a novel in vivo spectral imaging approach to cancer detection and chemotherapy assessment. We describe and characterize a ratiometric spectral imaging and analysis method and evaluate its performance for tumor detection and delineation by quantitatively monitoring the specific accumulation of targeted gallium corrole (HerGa) into HER2-positive (HER2 +) breast tumors. HerGa temporal accumulation in nude mice bearing HER2 + breast tumors was monitored comparatively by a. this new ratiometric imaging and analysis method; b. established (reflectance and fluorescence) spectral imaging; c. more commonly used fluorescence intensity imaging. We also tested the feasibility of HerGa imaging in vivo using the ratiometric spectral imaging method for tumor detection and delineation. Our results show that the new method not only provides better quantitative information than typical spectral imaging, but also better specificity than standard fluorescence intensity imaging, thus allowing enhanced in vivo outlining of tumors and dynamic, quantitative monitoring of targeted chemotherapy agent accumulation into them

    Steady states in a structured epidemic model with Wentzell boundary condition

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    We introduce a nonlinear structured population model with diffusion in the state space. Individuals are structured with respect to a continuous variable which represents a pathogen load. The class of uninfected individuals constitutes a special compartment that carries mass, hence the model is equipped with generalized Wentzell (or dynamic) boundary conditions. Our model is intended to describe the spread of infection of a vertically transmitted disease, for example Wolbachia in a mosquito population. Therefore the (infinite dimensional) nonlinearity arises in the recruitment term. First we establish global existence of solutions and the Principle of Linearised Stability for our model. Then, in our main result, we formulate simple conditions, which guarantee the existence of non-trivial steady states of the model. Our method utilizes an operator theoretic framework combined with a fixed point approach. Finally, in the last section we establish a sufficient condition for the local asymptotic stability of the positive steady state

    Technical note: Lithium isotopes in dolostone as a palaeo-environmental proxy - an experimental approach

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    Lithium (Li) isotopes in marine carbonates have considerable potential as a proxy to constrain past changes in silicate weathering fluxes and improve our understanding of Earth\u27s climate. To date the majority of Li isotope studies on marine carbonates have focussed on calcium carbonates. The determination of the Li isotope fractionation between dolomite and a dolomitizing fluid would allow us to extend investigations to deep times (i.e. Precambrian) when dolostones were the most abundant marine carbonate archives. Dolostones often contain a significant proportion of detrital silicate material, which dominates the Li budget; thus, pretreatment needs to be designed so that only the isotope composition of the carbonate-associated Li is measured. This study aims to serve two main goals: (1) to determine the Li isotope fractionation between Ca-Mg carbonates and solution, and (2) to develop a method for leaching the carbonate-associated Li out of dolostone while not affecting the Li contained within the detrital portion of the rock. We synthesized Ca-Mg carbonates at high temperatures (150 to 220 ∘C) and measured the Li isotope composition (δ7Li) of the precipitated solids and their respective reactive solutions. The relationship of the Li isotope fractionation factor with temperature was obtained ..
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