5,541 research outputs found

    Relaxation Behavior of Residual Stress on Deck-to-Rib Welded Joints by Fatigue Loading in an Orthotropic Bridge Deck

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    To accurately evaluate the influence of the actual tension and compression state and stress ratio at the deck-to-rib welding seam position on the fatigue life of a bridge deck, this paper establishes a coupled stress analysis model that considers the welding residual stress and vehicle stress. Taking the Jiangyin Bridge as an example, a qualitative analysis of the fatigue life under the vehicle load and residual stress field is carried out using the proposed method. A case analysis showed that when the residual tensile stress in the welding seam position is superimposed on the mainly tensile cyclic vehicle load stress, the longitudinal stress relaxation exceeds the peak vehicle load stress; significant longitudinal stress relaxation occurred, while the transverse stress relaxation is not significant. However, when the residual tensile stress is superimposed on the mainly compressive cyclic vehicle load stress, the relaxations of both the longitudinal and transverse stresses are not obvious. Compared with the stress state of the welding point under the action of only the vehicle stress, when the coupling effect of the residual stress and vehicle stress is considered, i.e., the loading condition, the fatigue stress state of the weld point has undergone an essential change under cyclic compressive stress, that is, the compressive stress state that does not require a fatigue check is changed to the tensile stress state. Although the fatigue state of the tensile stress cycle condition has not changed, the fatigue life is reduced by varying degrees under either the compressive or tensile condition

    Climate Change Impacts on Winter Wheat Yield in Northern China

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    Exploring the impacts of climate change on agriculture is one of important topics with respect to climate change. We quantitatively examined the impacts of climate change on winter wheat yield in Northern China using the Cobb–Douglas production function. Utilizing time-series data of agricultural production and meteorological observations from 1981 to 2016, the impacts of climatic factors on wheat production were assessed. It was found that the contribution of climatic factors to winter wheat yield per unit area (WYPA) was 0.762–1.921% in absolute terms. Growing season average temperature (GSAT) had a negative impact on WYPA for the period of 1981–2016. A 1% increase in GSAT could lead to a loss of 0.109% of WYPA when the other factors were constant. While growing season precipitation (GSP) had a positive impact on WYPA, as a 1% increase in GSP could result in 0.186% increase in WYPA, other factors kept constant. Then, the impacts on WYPA for the period 2021–2050 under two different emissions scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 were forecasted. For the whole study area, GSAT is projected to increase 1.37°C under RCP4.5 and 1.54°C under RCP8.5 for the period 2021–2050, which will lower the average WYPA by 1.75% and 1.97%, respectively. GSP is tended to increase by 17.31% under RCP4.5 and 22.22% under RCP8.5 and will give a rise of 3.22% and 4.13% in WYPA. The comprehensive effect of GSAT and GSP will increase WYPA by 1.47% under RCP4.5 and 2.16% under RCP8.5

    Calculation of microscopic nuclear level densities based on covariant density functional theory

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    A microscopic method for calculating nuclear level density (NLD) based on the covariant density functional theory (CDFT) is developed. The particle-hole state density is calculated by combinatorial method using the single-particle levels schemes obtained from the CDFT. Then the level densities are obtained by taking into account collective effects such as vibration and rotation. Our results are compared with those from other NLD models, including phenomenological, microstatistical, and non-relativistic HFB combinatorial models. The comparison suggests that the general trends among these models are basically the same, except for some deviations from different NLD models. In addition, the NLDs of the CDFT combinatorial method with normalization are compared with experimental data, including the observed cumulative number of levels at low excitation energy and the measured NLDs. Compared with the existing experimental data, the CDFT combinatorial method can give reasonable results.Comment: 9 pages, 8 figure

    Survey on public awareness, attitudes and self-protective behavior adoption in different periods of COVID-19

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    IntroductionThe outbreak and spread of the pandemics have been an issue of critical concern globally, posing a significant threat to the health sector globally. This study aimed to examine the basic knowledge and attitudes toward the recommended protective measures at different times, respond to the COVID-19 pandemic, and provide recommendations for developing targeted strategies and measures for preventing and controlling public health emergencies.MethodsThe study used self-filled questionnaires to examine the public's knowledge, attitudes, and practices on COVID-19 at two different period, from 20 to 31 March 2020 (the beginning period) and 22–27 April 2022 (the regular epidemic prevention and control period). Descriptive and quantitative analyses were used for statistical analysis.Results and discussionThe survey collected 2375 valid questionnaires. A comparison of the two periods reveals that as the epidemic continued over a long period, the level of knowledge, attitudes toward preventive measures, risk perceptions, and adoption behavior of the respondents at the beginning of the epidemic were significantly higher than during the regular epidemic prevention and control period. With the upsurge in the spread of the epidemic, the public needs a multi-channel, targeted, and all-round guidance and information on prevention and control of the COVID-19, and internalizes knowledge into individual's behavior of actively responding to diseases.When the epidemic lasts for a long time, the relevant agencies should strengthen their monitoring role to promote public compliance with the recommended measures

    Endogenous Opiates in the Nucleus Tractus Solitarius Mediate Electroacupuncture-Induced Sleep Activities in Rats

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    Electroacupuncture (EA) possesses various therapeutic effects, including alleviation of pain, reduction of inflammation and improvement of sleep disturbance. The mechanisms of EA on sleep improvement, however, remain to be determined. It has been stated in ancient Chinese literature that the Anmian (EX17) acupoint is one of the trigger points that alleviates insomnia. We previously demonstrated that EA stimulation of Anmian acupoints in rats during the dark period enhances non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, which involves the induction of cholinergic activity in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). In addition to cholinergic activation of the NTS, activation of the endogenous opioidergic system may also be a mechanism by which acupuncture affects sleep. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the involvement of the NTS opioidergic system in EA-induced alterations in sleep. Our present results indicate that EA of Anmian acupoints increased NREM sleep, but not rapid eye movement sleep, during the dark period in rats. This enhancement in NREM sleep was dose-dependently blocked by microinjection of opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone, and the μ-opioid receptor antagonist, naloxonazine, into the NTS; administrations of δ-receptor antagonist, natrindole, and the κ-receptor antagonist, nor-binaltrophimine, however, did not affect EA-induced alterations in sleep. Furthermore, β-endorphin was significantly increased in both the brainstem and hippocampus after the EA stimuli, an effect blocked by administration of the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine into the NTS. Our findings suggest that mechanisms of EA-induced NREM sleep enhancement may be mediated, in part, by cholinergic activation, stimulation of the opiodergic neurons to increase the concentrations of β-endorphin and the involvement of the μ-opioid receptors
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