35,396 research outputs found

    Gaseous 3^3He Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Probe for Cryogenic Environments

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    Normal nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) probes cannot be used to make high frequency resolution measurements in a cryogenic environment because they lose their frequency resolution when the liquid sample in the probe freezes. A gaseous 3^3He NMR probe, designed and constructed to work naturally in such cryogenic environments, is demonstrated at 4.2 K and 5.3 Tesla to have a frequency resolution better than 0.4 part per billion. As a demonstration of its usefulness, the cryogenic probe is used to shim a superconducting solenoid with a cryogenic interior to produce a magnetic field with a high spatial homogeneity, and to measure the magnetic field stability.Comment: 9 pages, 11 figure

    Towards an Improved Test of the Standard Model's Most Precise Prediction

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    The electron and positron magnetic moments are the most precise prediction of the standard model of particle physics. The most accurate measurement of a property of an elementary particle has been made to test this result. A new experimental method is now being employed in an attempt to improve the measurement accuracy by an order of magnitude. Positrons from a "student source" now suffice for the experiment. Progress toward a new measurement is summarized

    Valley-Hall Kink and Edge States in Multilayer Graphene

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    We report on a theoretical study of one-dimensional (1D) states localized at few-layer graphene system ribbon edges, and at interfaces between few-layer graphene systems with different valley Hall conductivities. These 1D states are topologically protected when valley mixing is neglected. We address the influence on their properties of stacking arrangement, interface structure, and external electric field perpendicular to the layers. We find that 1D states are generally absent at multilayer ribbon armchair direction edges, but present irrespective of crystallographic orientation at any internal valley-Hall interface of an ABC stacked multilayer.Comment: 5 pages, 3 figure

    Frequency-tunable metamaterials using broadside-coupled split ring resonators

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    We present frequency tunable metamaterial designs at terahertz (THz) frequencies using broadside-coupled split ring resonator (BC-SRR) arrays. Frequency tuning, arising from changes in near field coupling, is obtained by in-plane horizontal or vertical displacements of the two SRR layers. For electrical excitation, the resonance frequency continuously redshifts as a function of displacement. The maximum frequency shift occurs for displacement of half a unit cell, with vertical displacement resulting in a shift of 663 GHz (51% of f0) and horizontal displacement yielding a shift of 270 GHz (20% of f0). We also discuss the significant differences in tuning that arise for electrical excitation in comparison to magnetic excitation of BC-SRRs

    High energy neutrino early afterglows from gamma-ray bursts revisited

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    The high energy neutrino emission from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) has been expected in various scenarios. In this paper, we study the neutrino emission from early afterglows of GRBs, especially under the reverse-forward shock model and late prompt emission model. In the former model, the early afterglow emission occurs due to dissipation made by an external shock with the circumburst medium (CBM). In the latter model, internal dissipation such as internal shocks produces the shallow decay emission in early afterglows. We also discuss implications of recent Swift observations for neutrino signals in detail. Future neutrino detectors such as IceCube may detect neutrino signals from early afterglows, especially under the late prompt emission model, while the detection would be difficult under the reverse-forward shock model. Contribution to the neutrino background from the early afterglow emission may be at most comparable to that from the prompt emission unless the outflow making the early afterglow emission loads more nonthermal protons, and it may be important in the very high energies. Neutrino-detections are inviting because they could provide us with not only information on baryon acceleration but also one of the clues to the model of early afterglows. Finally, we compare various predictions for the neutrino background from GRBs, which are testable by future neutrino-observations.Comment: 18 pages, 12 figures, accepted for publication in PR

    Threshold Error Penalty for Fault Tolerant Computation with Nearest Neighbour Communication

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    The error threshold for fault tolerant quantum computation with concatenated encoding of qubits is penalized by internal communication overhead. Many quantum computation proposals rely on nearest-neighbour communication, which requires excess gate operations. For a qubit stripe with a width of L+1 physical qubits implementing L levels of concatenation, we find that the error threshold of 2.1x10^-5 without any communication burden is reduced to 1.2x10^-7 when gate errors are the dominant source of error. This ~175X penalty in error threshold translates to an ~13X penalty in the amplitude and timing of gate operation control pulses.Comment: minor correctio

    Tractable Pathfinding for the Stochastic On-Time Arrival Problem

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    We present a new and more efficient technique for computing the route that maximizes the probability of on-time arrival in stochastic networks, also known as the path-based stochastic on-time arrival (SOTA) problem. Our primary contribution is a pathfinding algorithm that uses the solution to the policy-based SOTA problem---which is of pseudo-polynomial-time complexity in the time budget of the journey---as a search heuristic for the optimal path. In particular, we show that this heuristic can be exceptionally efficient in practice, effectively making it possible to solve the path-based SOTA problem as quickly as the policy-based SOTA problem. Our secondary contribution is the extension of policy-based preprocessing to path-based preprocessing for the SOTA problem. In the process, we also introduce Arc-Potentials, a more efficient generalization of Stochastic Arc-Flags that can be used for both policy- and path-based SOTA. After developing the pathfinding and preprocessing algorithms, we evaluate their performance on two different real-world networks. To the best of our knowledge, these techniques provide the most efficient computation strategy for the path-based SOTA problem for general probability distributions, both with and without preprocessing.Comment: Submission accepted by the International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms 2016 and published by Springer in the Lecture Notes in Computer Science series on June 1, 2016. Includes typographical corrections and modifications to pre-processing made after the initial submission to SODA'15 (July 7, 2014

    A right-handed isotropic medium with a negative refractive index

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    The sign of the refractive index of any medium is soley determined by the requirement that the propagation of an electromagnetic wave obeys Einstein causality. Our analysis shows that this requirement predicts that the real part of the refractive index may be negative in an isotropic medium even if the electric permittivity and the magnetic permeability are both positive. Such a system may be a route to negative index media at optical frequencies. We also demonstrate that the refractive index may be positive in left-handed media that contain two molecular species where one is in its excited state.Comment: 4.1 pages, 4 figures, submitted to Physical Review Letter
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