105 research outputs found

    Can experts interpret a map's content more efficiently?

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    This paper describes the statistical comparison of the results from an experiment with a ‘between user’-design. The first group of participants consists out of novices whereas the second group consists out of experts which have experience in map use and have had training in cartography. The same stimuli (twenty screen maps) are presented in a random order to the participants who have to locate a number of labels on the map image. The participants are asked to indicate when they located a name by a button action, resulting in a time measurement. Furthermore, the participant’s eye movements are registered during the whole test. The combined information reveals a same trend in the time intervals needed to locate the subsequent labels in both user groups. However, the experts are significantly faster in locating the names on the map (P<0.010). The recorded eye movements further confirm and explain this finding: the expert’s fixations are significantly shorter (P<0.001) and can consequently have more fixations per second (P<0.001). This means that an expert can interpret the map content more efficiently and can thus search a larger part of the map in the same amount of time

    Analyzing eye movement patterns to improve map design

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    Recently, the use of eye tracking systems has been introduced in the field of cartography and GIS to support the evaluation of the quality of maps towards the user. The quantitative eye movement metrics are related to for example the duration or the number of the fixations which are subsequently (statistically) compared to detect significant differences in map designs or between different user groups. Hence, besides these standard eye movement metrics, other - more spatial - measurements and visual interpretations of the data are more suitable to investigate how users process, store and retrieve information from a (dynamic and/or) interactive map. This information is crucial to get insights in how users construct their cognitive map: e.g. is there a general search pattern on a map and which elements influence this search pattern, how do users orient a map, what is the influence of for example a pan operation. These insights are in turn crucial to be able to construct more effective maps towards the user, since the visualisation of the information on the map can be keyed to the user his cognitive processes. The study focuses on a qualitative and visual approach of the eye movement data resulting from a user study in which 14 participants were tested while working on 20 different dynamic and interactive demo-maps. Since maps are essentially spatial objects, the analysis of these eye movement data is directed towards the locations of the fixations, the visual representation of the scanpaths, clustering and aggregation of the scanpaths. The results from this study show interesting patterns in the search strategies of users on dynamic and interactive maps

    Binary and Ternary Quasi-perfect Codes with Small Dimensions

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    The aim of this work is a systematic investigation of the possible parameters of quasi-perfect (QP) binary and ternary linear codes of small dimensions and preparing a complete classification of all such codes. First we give a list of infinite families of QP codes which includes all binary, ternary and quaternary codes known to is. We continue further with a list of sporadic examples of binary and ternary QP codes. Later we present the results of our investigation where binary QP codes of dimensions up to 14 and ternary QP codes of dimensions up to 13 are classified.Comment: 4 page

    Prospects and limitations of full-text index structures in genome analysis

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    The combination of incessant advances in sequencing technology producing large amounts of data and innovative bioinformatics approaches, designed to cope with this data flood, has led to new interesting results in the life sciences. Given the magnitude of sequence data to be processed, many bioinformatics tools rely on efficient solutions to a variety of complex string problems. These solutions include fast heuristic algorithms and advanced data structures, generally referred to as index structures. Although the importance of index structures is generally known to the bioinformatics community, the design and potency of these data structures, as well as their properties and limitations, are less understood. Moreover, the last decade has seen a boom in the number of variant index structures featuring complex and diverse memory-time trade-offs. This article brings a comprehensive state-of-the-art overview of the most popular index structures and their recently developed variants. Their features, interrelationships, the trade-offs they impose, but also their practical limitations, are explained and compared

    Visual analytics on eye movement data reveal search patterns on dynamic and interactive maps

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    In this paper the results of a visual analytics approach on eye movement data are described which allows detecting underlying patterns in the scanpaths of the user’s during a visual search on a map. These patterns give insights in the user his cognitive processes or his mental map while working with interactive maps