2,532 research outputs found

    Evaluation of Twitter data for an emerging crisis: an application to the first wave of COVID-19 in the UK

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    In the absence of nationwide mass testing for an emerging health crisis, alternative approaches could provide necessary information efficiently to aid policy makers and health bodies when dealing with a pandemic. The following work presents a methodology by which Twitter data surrounding the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK is harvested and analysed using two main approaches. The first is an investigation into localized outbreak predictions by developing a prototype early-warning system using the distribution of total tweet volume. The temporal lag between the rises in the number of COVID-19 related tweets and officially reported deaths by Public Health England (PHE) is observed to be 6–27 days for various UK cities which matches the temporal lag values found in the literature. To better understand the topics of discussion and attitudes of people surrounding the pandemic, the second approach is an in-depth behavioural analysis assessing the public opinion and response to government policies such as the introduction of face-coverings. Using topic modelling, nine distinct topics are identified within the corpus of COVID-19 tweets, of which the themes ranged from retail to government bodies. Sentiment analysis on a subset of mask related tweets revealed sentiment spikes corresponding to major news and announcements. A Named Entity Recognition (NER) algorithm is trained and applied in a semi-supervised manner to recognise tweets containing location keywords within the unlabelled corpus and achieved a precision of 81.6%. Overall, these approaches allowed extraction of temporal trends relating to PHE case numbers, popular locations in relation to the use of face-coverings, and attitudes towards face-coverings, vaccines and the national ‘Test and Trace’ scheme

    Fast b-tagging at the high-level trigger of the ATLAS experiment in LHC Run 3

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    The ATLAS experiment relies on real-time hadronic jet reconstruction and b-tagging to record fully hadronic events containing b-jets. These algorithms require track reconstruction, which is computationally expensive and could overwhelm the high-level-trigger farm, even at the reduced event rate that passes the ATLAS first stage hardware-based trigger. In LHC Run 3, ATLAS has mitigated these computational demands by introducing a fast neural-network-based b-tagger, which acts as a low-precision filter using input from hadronic jets and tracks. It runs after a hardware trigger and before the remaining high-level-trigger reconstruction. This design relies on the negligible cost of neural-network inference as compared to track reconstruction, and the cost reduction from limiting tracking to specific regions of the detector. In the case of Standard Model HH → bb̅bb̅, a key signature relying on b-jet triggers, the filter lowers the input rate to the remaining high-level trigger by a factor of five at the small cost of reducing the overall signal efficiency by roughly 2%

    Direct measurement of the mass difference between top and antitop quarks

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    We present a direct measurement of the mass difference between top and antitop quarks (dm) in lepton+jets top-antitop final states using the "matrix element" method. The purity of the lepton+jets sample is enhanced for top-antitop events by identifying at least one of the jet as originating from a b quark. The analyzed data correspond to 3.6 fb-1 of proton-antiproton collisions at 1.96 TeV acquired by D0 in Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The combination of the e+jets and mu+jets channels yields dm = 0.8 +/- 1.8 (stat) +/- 0.5 (syst) GeV, which is in agreement with the standard model expectation of no mass difference.Comment: submitted to Phys. Rev.

    A search for charged massive long-lived particles

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    We report on a search for charged massive long-lived particles (CMLLPs), based on 5.2 fb−1^{-1} of integrated luminosity collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron ppˉp\bar{p} collider. We search for events in which one or more particles are reconstructed as muons but have speed and ionization energy loss (dE/dx)(dE/dx) inconsistent with muons produced in beam collisions. CMLLPs are predicted in several theories of physics beyond the standard model. We exclude pair-produced long-lived gaugino-like charginos below 267 GeV and higgsino-like charginos below 217 GeV at 95% C.L., as well as long-lived scalar top quarks with mass below 285 GeV.Comment: submitted to Phys. Rev. Letter

    Zgamma production and limits on anomalous ZZgamma and Zgammagamma couplings in ppbar collisions at sqrt(s)=1.96 TeV

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    We present a measurement of ppbar->Zgamma->ll+gamma (l = e, mu) production with a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 6.2 fb^{-1} collected by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron ppbar Collider. The results of the electron and muon channels are combined, and we measure the total production cross section and the differential cross section dsigma/dp_T^gamma, where p_T^gamma is the momentum of the photon in the plane transverse to the beamline. The results obtained are consistent with the standard model predictions from next-to-leading order calculations. We use the transverse momentum spectrum of the photon to place limits on anomalous ZZgamma and Zgammagamma couplings

    Precise measurement of the top quark mass in the dilepton channel at D0

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    We measure the top quark mass (mt) in ppbar collisions at a center of mass energy of 1.96 TeV using dilepton ttbar->W+bW-bbar->l+nubl-nubarbbar events, where l denotes an electron, a muon, or a tau that decays leptonically. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 5.4 fb-1 collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. We obtain mt = 174.0 +- 1.8(stat) +- 2.4(syst) GeV, which is in agreement with the current world average mt = 173.3 +- 1.1 GeV. This is currently the most precise measurement of mt in the dilepton channel.Comment: 7 pages, 4 figure

    Search for a Narrow ttbar Resonance in ppbar Collisions at sqrt{s}=1.96 TeV

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    We report a search for a narrow ttbar resonance that decays into a lepton+jets final state based on an integrated luminosity of 5.3/fb of proton-antiproton collisions at sqrt{s}=1.96 TeV collected by the D0 Collaboration at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. We set upper limits on the production cross section of such a resonance multiplied by its branching fraction to ttbar which we compare to predictions for a leptophobic topcolor Z' boson. We exclude such a resonance at the 95% confidence level for masses below 835 GeV.Comment: 7 pages, 3 figures, submitted to Physical Review Letter

    Search for B0→π0π0B^{0}\to \pi^{0}\pi^{0} Decay

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    We have searched for the charmless hadronic decay of B0 mesons into two neutral pions. Using 9.13fb^-1 taken at the Upsilon(4S) with the CLEO detector, we obtain an improved upper limit for the branching fraction BR(B0-->pi0pi0) < 5.7*10^-6 at the 90% confidence level.Comment: pages postscript, also available through http://w4.lns.cornell.edu/public/CLN

    Search for Zgamma events with large missing transverse energy in ppbar collisions at sqrt(s)=1.96 TeV

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    We present the first search for supersymmetry (SUSY) in Zgamma final states with large missing transverse energy using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 6.2 fb-1 collected with the D0 experiment in ppbar collisions at sqrt(s)=1.96 TeV. This signature is predicted in gauge-mediated SUSY-breaking models, where the lightest neutralino is the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle (NLSP) and is produced in pairs, possibly through decay from heavier supersymmetric particles. The NLSP can decay either to a Z boson or a photon and an associated gravitino that escapes detection. We exclude this model at the 95% C.L. for SUSY breaking scales of Lambda < 87 TeV, corresponding to neutralino masses of < 151 GeV.Comment: submitted to Phys. Rev. Let
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