29 research outputs found

    Les discours éthiques de la mode : Entre réparation et renouveau des modÚles

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    La mode est en train de se « convertir » – et pour cause : ce n’est pas un hasard en temps d’urgence – Ă  une Ă©thique Ă©cologique. Le thĂšme choisi pour cette contribution est dictĂ© par l’intention d’explorer le langage qu’utilise la mode Ă©thique dans un corpus de textes de nature diverse ayant tous pour trame de fond un vocabulaire dont les connotations renvoient Ă  un lexique de philosophie religieuse. L’hypothĂšse sous-jacente Ă  cette recherche est qu’une partie de cet outillage discursif peut ĂȘtre intimement reliĂ©e Ă  un discours moral, voire rĂ©solument spirituel. De la « conversion » Ă©cologique de la mode Ă  la prĂ©conisation de pratiques quasi ascĂ©tiques devant dĂ©boucher sur un comportement plus responsable de consommateur non compulsif en passant par le pacte de la mode et tout le discours tournant autour de la deuxiĂšme vie Ă  donner aux vĂȘtements, le langage utilisĂ© semble parsemĂ© d’emprunts au corpus de la thĂ©ologie. VoilĂ  qui confĂ©rerait Ă  la mode, dĂ©jĂ  Ă©thique par nature, la possibilitĂ© de se hisser au rang d’un modĂšle moral dont la compĂ©tence s’élargirait jusqu’à devenir nouvelle orthodoxie ou nouvelle orthopraxie. L’idĂ©e d’oĂč est sortie La Contre-mode, de Monsieur de Fitelieu, texte de 1642, trouve des correspondances contemporaines dans le manifeste anti-mode de Lidewij Edelkoort, aussi bien que dans un nouveau discours prĂŽnant une consommation vestimentaire capable de prendre en compte la protection de la planĂšte. Ainsi la mode serait au confluent de deux modĂšles : celui du discours Ă©thique renouvelĂ© et, parallĂšlement, un Ă©lĂ©ment rĂ©current du cycle historique, s’il faut en croire Giambattista Vico (m. 1744), philosophe de l’histoire, qui, dans Corsi e ricorsi oppose Ă  la mode et Ă  son discours une autre mode et ses pratiques

    Association of Upfront Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy With Progression-Free Survival Among Patients With Enteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

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    open57noIMPORTANCE Data about the optimal timing for the initiation of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) for advanced, well-differentiated enteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors are lacking. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association of upfront PRRT vs upfront chemotherapy or targeted therapy with progression-free survival (PFS) among patients with advanced enteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors who experienced disease progression after treatment with somatostatin analogues (SSAs). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This retrospective, multicenter cohort study analyzed the clinical records from 25 Italian oncology centers for patients aged 18 years or older who had unresectable, locally advanced or metastatic, well-differentiated, grades 1 to 3 enteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors and received either PRRT or chemotherapy or targeted therapy after experiencing disease progression after treatment with SSAs between January 24, 2000, and July 1, 2020. Propensity score matching was done to minimize the selection bias. EXPOSURES Upfront PRRT or upfront chemotherapy or targeted therapy. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The main outcome was the difference in PFS among patients who received upfront PRRT vs among those who received upfront chemotherapy or targeted therapy. A secondary outcome was the difference in overall survival between these groups. Hazard ratios (HRs) were fitted in a multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model to adjust for relevant factors associated with PFS and were corrected for interaction with these factors. RESULTS Of 508 evaluated patients (mean ([SD] age, 55.7 [0.5] years; 278 [54.7%] were male), 329 (64.8%) received upfront PRRT and 179 (35.2%) received upfront chemotherapy or targeted therapy. The matched group included 222 patients (124 [55.9%] male; mean [SD] age, 56.1 [0.8] years), with 111 in each treatment group. Median PFS was longer in the PRRT group than in the chemotherapy or targeted therapy group in the unmatched (2.5 years [95%CI, 2.3-3.0 years] vs 0.7 years [95%CI, 0.5-1.0 years]; HR, 0.35 [95%CI, 0.28-0.44; P < .001]) and matched (2.2 years [95% CI, 1.8-2.8 years] vs 0.6 years [95%CI, 0.4-1.0 years]; HR, 0.37 [95%CI, 0.27-0.51; P < .001]) populations. No significant differences were shown in median overall survival between the PRRT and chemotherapy or targeted therapy groups in the unmatched (12.0 years [95%CI, 10.7-14.1 years] vs 11.6 years [95%CI, 9.1-13.4 years]; HR, 0.81 [95%CI, 0.62-1.06; P = .11]) and matched (12.2 years [95% CI, 9.1-14.2 years] vs 11.5 years [95%CI, 9.2-17.9 years]; HR, 0.83 [95%CI, 0.56-1.24; P = .36]) populations. The use of upfront PRRT was independently associated with improved PFS (HR, 0.37; 95%CI, 0.26-0.51; P < .001) in multivariable analysis. After adjustment of values for interaction, upfront PRRT was associated with longer PFS regardless of tumor functional status (functioning: adjusted HR [aHR], 0.39 [95%CI, 0.27-0.57]; nonfunctioning: aHR, 0.29 [95%CI, 0.16-0.56]), grade of 1 to 2 (grade 1: aHR, 0.21 [95%CI, 0.12-0.34]; grade 2: aHR, 0.52 [95%CI, 0.29-0.73]), and site of tumor origin (pancreatic: aHR, 0.41 [95%CI, 0.24-0.61]; intestinal: aHR, 0.19 [95%CI, 0.11-0.43]) (P < .001 for all). Conversely, the advantage was not retained in grade 3 tumors (aHR, 0.31; 95%CI, 0.12-1.37; P = .13) or in tumors with a Ki-67 proliferation index greater than 10% (aHR, 0.73; 95%CI, 0.29-1.43; P = .31). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE In this cohort study, treatment with upfront PRRT in patients with enteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors who had experienced disease progression with SSA treatment was associated with significantly improved survival outcomes compared with upfront chemotherapy or targeted therapy. Further research is needed to investigate the correct strategy, timing, and optimal specific sequence of these therapeutic options.openPusceddu, Sara; Prinzi, Natalie; Tafuto, Salvatore; Ibrahim, Toni; Filice, Angelina; Brizzi, Maria Pia; Panzuto, Francesco; Baldari, Sergio; Grana, Chiara M.; Campana, Davide; DavĂŹ, Maria Vittoria; Giuffrida, Dario; Zatelli, Maria Chiara; Partelli, Stefano; Razzore, Paola; Marconcini, Riccardo; Massironi, Sara; Gelsomino, Fabio; Faggiano, Antongiulio; Giannetta, Elisa; Bajetta, Emilio; Grimaldi, Franco; Cives, Mauro; Cirillo, Fernando; Perfetti, Vittorio; Corti, Francesca; Ricci, Claudio; Giacomelli, Luca; Porcu, Luca; Di Maio, Massimo; Seregni, Ettore; Maccauro, Marco; Lastoria, Secondo; Bongiovanni, Alberto; Versari, Annibale; Persano, Irene; Rinzivillo, Maria; Pignata, Salvatore Antonio; Rocca, Paola Anna; Lamberti, Giuseppe; Cingarlini, Sara; Puliafito, Ivana; Ambrosio, Maria Rosaria; Zanata, Isabella; Bracigliano, Alessandra; Severi, Stefano; Spada, Francesca; Andreasi, Valentina; Modica, Roberta; Scalorbi, Federica; Milione, Massimo; Sabella, Giovanna; Coppa, Jorgelina; Casadei, Riccardo; Di Bartolomeo, Maria; Falconi, Massimo; de Braud, FilippoPusceddu, Sara; Prinzi, Natalie; Tafuto, Salvatore; Ibrahim, Toni; Filice, Angelina; Brizzi, Maria Pia; Panzuto, Francesco; Baldari, Sergio; Grana, Chiara M.; Campana, Davide; DavĂŹ, Maria Vittoria; Giuffrida, Dario; Zatelli, Maria Chiara; Partelli, Stefano; Razzore, Paola; Marconcini, Riccardo; Massironi, Sara; Gelsomino, Fabio; Faggiano, Antongiulio; Giannetta, Elisa; Bajetta, Emilio; Grimaldi, Franco; Cives, Mauro; Cirillo, Fernando; Perfetti, Vittorio; Corti, Francesca; Ricci, Claudio; Giacomelli, Luca; Porcu, Luca; Di Maio, Massimo; Seregni, Ettore; Maccauro, Marco; Lastoria, Secondo; Bongiovanni, Alberto; Versari, Annibale; Persano, Irene; Rinzivillo, Maria; Pignata, Salvatore Antonio; Rocca, Paola Anna; Lamberti, Giuseppe; Cingarlini, Sara; Puliafito, Ivana; Ambrosio, Maria Rosaria; Zanata, Isabella; Bracigliano, Alessandra; Severi, Stefano; Spada, Francesca; Andreasi, Valentina; Modica, Roberta; Scalorbi, Federica; Milione, Massimo; Sabella, Giovanna; Coppa, Jorgelina; Casadei, Riccardo; Di Bartolomeo, Maria; Falconi, Massimo; de Braud, Filipp

    How future surgery will benefit from SARS-COV-2-related measures: a SPIGC survey conveying the perspective of Italian surgeons

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    COVID-19 negatively affected surgical activity, but the potential benefits resulting from adopted measures remain unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the change in surgical activity and potential benefit from COVID-19 measures in perspective of Italian surgeons on behalf of SPIGC. A nationwide online survey on surgical practice before, during, and after COVID-19 pandemic was conducted in March-April 2022 (NCT:05323851). Effects of COVID-19 hospital-related measures on surgical patients' management and personal professional development across surgical specialties were explored. Data on demographics, pre-operative/peri-operative/post-operative management, and professional development were collected. Outcomes were matched with the corresponding volume. Four hundred and seventy-three respondents were included in final analysis across 14 surgical specialties. Since SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, application of telematic consultations (4.1% vs. 21.6%; p < 0.0001) and diagnostic evaluations (16.4% vs. 42.2%; p < 0.0001) increased. Elective surgical activities significantly reduced and surgeons opted more frequently for conservative management with a possible indication for elective (26.3% vs. 35.7%; p < 0.0001) or urgent (20.4% vs. 38.5%; p < 0.0001) surgery. All new COVID-related measures are perceived to be maintained in the future. Surgeons' personal education online increased from 12.6% (pre-COVID) to 86.6% (post-COVID; p < 0.0001). Online educational activities are considered a beneficial effect from COVID pandemic (56.4%). COVID-19 had a great impact on surgical specialties, with significant reduction of operation volume. However, some forced changes turned out to be benefits. Isolation measures pushed the use of telemedicine and telemetric devices for outpatient practice and favored communication for educational purposes and surgeon-patient/family communication. From the Italian surgeons' perspective, COVID-related measures will continue to influence future surgical clinical practice

    Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (3rd edition)

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    In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. For example, a key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process versus those that measure fl ux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process including the amount and rate of cargo sequestered and degraded). In particular, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation must be differentiated from stimuli that increase autophagic activity, defi ned as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (inmost higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium ) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the fi eld understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. It is worth emphasizing here that lysosomal digestion is a stage of autophagy and evaluating its competence is a crucial part of the evaluation of autophagic flux, or complete autophagy. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. Along these lines, because of the potential for pleiotropic effects due to blocking autophagy through genetic manipulation it is imperative to delete or knock down more than one autophagy-related gene. In addition, some individual Atg proteins, or groups of proteins, are involved in other cellular pathways so not all Atg proteins can be used as a specific marker for an autophagic process. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field

    Chapitre II. Une confrérie ottomane

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    Dans l’Anatolie ottomane des xvie et xviie siĂšcles, les confrĂ©ries soufies (tarika, pl. tarikat ; ar. tarĂźq, pl. turĂ»q) occupent une place importante. C’est un creuset de voies initiatiques Ă  la fois complexes et trĂšs vivantes. Hormis les provinces arabes oĂč les confrĂ©ries installĂ©es sont d’origine nord-africaine et irakienne, l’Empire ottoman, dans son espace anatolien, est surtout marquĂ© par les voies d’Orient : la Yeseviye, la NakƟbendiye, la Kubreviye et la Kalenderiye. Jusqu’à une Ă©poque..

    Chapitre VI. Anthropologie d’un rituel

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    Les pratiques soufies et surtout le sema fournissent des Ă©lĂ©ments importants pour une analyse de l’anthropologie du rituel soufi. La danse soufie a constituĂ© un Ă©cueil majeur pour les docteurs de la Loi Ă  diffĂ©rentes Ă©poques, surtout au xviie siĂšcle qui marque le dĂ©but d’un changement radical dans l’histoire de l’islam ottoman. AlliĂ© prĂ©cieux lors de la constitution de l’Empire, le soufisme a vu progressivement ses liens avec le pouvoir ottoman se distendre, ce dernier s’inquiĂ©tant de la plac..

    Chapitre IV. Des pratiques mevlevĂźes

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    Le mot « pratique », dĂ©rivĂ© du grec prattein qui signifie « agir », a un large champ sĂ©mantique : comme adjectif, il s’oppose Ă  « thĂ©orique », et dans ce sens, il peut indiquer la transformation de la nature (instrument pratique) ou la conduite morale (la « raison pratique » de Kant). En tant que substantif, le mot « pratique » s’oppose Ă  la spĂ©culation dĂ©signant ainsi l’expĂ©rience. Dans cette perspective, la signification de « pratique » religieuse va de la participation Ă  la vie d’une commu..

    Invisible Dress: Weaving a Theology of Fashion

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    This article establishes the framework for a (Christian) theology of fashion, the development of which comes under a research project set up between Luxembourg (Luxembourg School of Religion & Society) and Paris (Collège des Bernardins). The text is structured around three areas: the first reveals how theology can accommodate in its field of thought both the idea of dress (also viewed in terms of its materiality) and the way in which modern society experiments with it: fashion. For as much as theological discourse, particularly Christian, might have shown itself to be critical regarding modern day fashion, it has nevertheless failed to come up with any real theological reflection on the subject. The second area aims to explore responsible ethics for fashion. Often moralising, the attitude of Christian theology needs to give way to an ethical and—vitally—ecological analysis of the effects of fashion in today’s world. Clothing might still cover people’s bodies, but the issue is not restricted to an individual moral point of view, and extends to the social rules of an ethic that is also one of environmental responsibility. Finally, the totally new perspective that I adopt for outlining these areas requires the aesthetics of dress and fashion to be addressed from a theological point of view. For all its rich history, theological aesthetics has hardly ever concerned itself with developing an aesthetic discourse for dress and fashion, other than for liturgical and religious attire. Once these three new research perspectives have been discussed, I want to outline another field of study, in itself extremely fertile: a treasure trove of metaphors and analogies that would be very useful in theological thinking, adding to its inventory terms originating in the uncovering and stripping away of old ways of thinking that no longer convey in contemporary language the mystery that it is meant to clothe

    Conclusion

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    La conscience, fondĂ©e ou non, mais diffusĂ©e chez les Ottomans eux-mĂȘmes, de traverser une pĂ©riode de dĂ©cadence et de dĂ©clin de l’Empire aura beaucoup pesĂ© sur les dĂ©bats autour des pratiques soufies et jusque sur la vision mĂȘme du soufisme aux xvie et xviie siĂšcles. Cela explique en partie les attaques que des prĂ©dicateurs intransigeants, les Kadızadelis, ont menĂ©es contre les soufis et leurs pratiques, car celles-ci constituaient, Ă  leurs yeux, l’une des causes de la dĂ©cadence morale et, par..

    Introduction

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    MevlĂąna CelĂąleddin Rumi (1207-1273) (en transcription arabe et persane MawlĂąnĂą JalĂąl al-DĂźn RĂ»mĂź) est considĂ©rĂ© par les uns comme l’inspirateur, par les autres comme le fondateur de la confrĂ©rie musulmane Mevleviye (en arabe MawlĂąwiyya), plus connue en Occident sous le nom de « derviches tourneurs ». GrĂące aux rĂ©cits des voyageurs occidentaux qui ont arpentĂ© les rĂ©gions gouvernĂ©es par les Ottomans, les soufis et surtout les derviches tourneurs n’ont cessĂ© de frapper l’imagination des EuropĂ©en..
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