812 research outputs found

    “E-payment” SISTEM

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    Sekarang ini merupakan tahun dari revolusi teknologi informasi. Perdagangan dan perniagaan di Internet membutuhkan kecepatan dalam “transfer of money”. Hal tersebut menimbulkan mulai banyaknya e-payment, e-money, e-banking dan sebagainya. Paper ini akan membahas mengenai jenis-jensis transaksi pembayaran secara "online" seperti "e-cash", "Electronic Wallets", "Smart Card", "Old transaction Credit Card (MOTO)". Pembayaran secara “online” merupakan pembayaran barang dan servis melalui internet yang biasanya menggunakan kartu kredit (credit card). Transaksi keuangannya diproses secara elektronik dalam “real time”. Proses pembayaran secara “online” telah marak dalam beberapa abad ini, dan dapat menjadi tugas yang berat dalam hal bisnis untuk mengimplementasikannya. Dalam paper ini, kami juga membandingkan tiap-tiap jenis dari e-payment tersebut,baik dari segi proses transaksi tiap-tiap jenis e-payment. Juga dibuat desain dari masing-masing e-payment dan cara pengimplementasiannya. Kita juga menampilkan bagaimana perkembangan pengguna e-payment di Indonesia. Pengguna e-payment di Indonesia sekarang ini cukup berkembang, banyak pengguna kartu kredit di indonesia yang lebih memilh menggunakan e-payment proses dalam melakukan setiap transaksi, baik transaksi pembelian barang ataupun servis. Namun masih terdapat beberapa masalah dalam hal penggunaan kartu kredit (credit card) di Indonesia. Contohnya, belum terpercayanya keamanan dari kartu kredit (credit card) tersebut, belum adanya proteksi terhadap penyalahgunaan kartu kredit (credit card). Tentunya diperlukan cara lain untuk melakukan proses transaksi epayment tanpa menggunakan kartu kredit (credit card). Dan terakhir merupakan hasil dari penelitian yang kami lakukan. E-cash atau Smart Card merupakan proses e-payment yang paling aman dan tepat digunakan, karena dalam melakukan transmisi data dalam proses transaksinya dilakukan pengekripsian data

    Guardians of the Earth: Indigenous Peoples and Environmental Stewardship

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    In this presentation on Indigenous Peoples and Environmental Stewardship, I will discuss the crucial role that Indigenous communities play in preserving our natural world. I will highlight their deep connection to the land, their generally sustainable practices, and how their traditional knowledge contributes to biodiversity conservation. Additionally, I will emphasise the need for recognising Indigenous rights and fostering partnerships to address environmental challenges and achieve a harmonious coexistence between people and the planet

    Socioeconomics and the Trade in Ape Meat and Parts

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    Lack of maintenance of motorway fences works against their intended purpose with potential negative impacts on protected species

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    Linear infrastructure intrusions into natural ecosystems, such as motorways and high-speed railways, causes direct loss of habitat but also impacts fauna through collisions. Wildlife road mortality is well documented and extensive conservation legislation exists in many countries to minimise the negative impact of these infrastructures. However, although these measures are implemented because of legislation, these structures are often not adequately maintained. Here we present data on the functionality of perimeter fences along two motorways in Malaga province (southern Spain) erected to prevent collisions with the common chameleon (Chamaeleo chamaeleon). We sampled the fences along the 14 km of the two motorways included in the 17 1 × 1 km squares of the study area. Our results show that the reptile fence is permeable throughout at those points where the metal sheeting was absent and where the vegetation had overgrown around the fence, hence allowing chameleons to cross. Given our results, we conclude that this situation is likely to be similar in other regions of Spain and in other countries. This is because construction/concessionary companies do not consider the environmental impact of construction projects in the medium and long term, and environmental authorities do not ensure that companies comply with the legislation

    Hunting Wildlife in the Tropics and Subtropics

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    The hunting of wild animals for their meat has been a crucial activity in the evolution of humans. It continues to be an essential source of food and a generator of income for millions of Indigenous and rural communities worldwide. Conservationists rightly fear that excessive hunting of many animal species will cause their demise, as has already happened throughout the Anthropocene. Many species of large mammals and birds have been decimated or annihilated due to overhunting by humans. If such pressures continue, many other species will meet the same fate. Equally, if the use of wildlife resources is to continue by those who depend on it, sustainable practices must be implemented. These communities need to remain or become custodians of the wildlife resources within their lands, for their own well-being as well as for biodiversity in general. This title is also available via Open Access on Cambridge Core

    Assessing disease risk perceptions of wild meat in savanna borderland settlements in Kenya and Tanzania

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    Wild meat hunting and trade across African savannas is widespread. We interviewed 299 people in rural settlements along the Kenya-Tanzania border to examine impacts of COVID-19 on wild meat consumption and perceptions about wild meat activities associated with zoonotic disease risks. Education level played a key part in understanding COVID-19 transmission. Information about the pandemic was mostly acquired from the media. Nearly all respondents recognized that COVID-19 originated in China. As many as 70% reported no impact of COVID-19 on wild meat consumption; some believed that there was an increase. Over half of the respondents believed that consumption of wild meat leads to food-borne illnesses. Respondents recognized disease risks such as anthrax and brucellosis and accepted that people slaughtering and handling wild meat with open cuts were at greater risk. Ungulates were the most consumed animals, followed by birds, rodents, and shrews. Respondents perceived that hyenas, monkeys, donkeys, and snakes were riskier to eat. More than 90% of the respondents understood that handwashing with soap reduces risks of disease transmission. Country level (11 answers), education and gender (three answers each) and household economy (158 answers) were significant. Country differences were linked to differences in nature legislation; 50% of Kenyan respondents believed that wild meat should not be sold because of conservation concerns. Men were more worried about getting COVID-19 from live animals and perceived that wildlife should not be sold because of conservation reasons. Overall, there was a very strong inclination to stop buying wild meat if other meats were less expensive. Our results allow us to better understand the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on wild meat-related activities. Differences between countries can frame the attitudes to wild meat since wild meat trade and consumption were found to be country specific

    Determining baselines and trends of Eastern chimpanzees and forest elephants in a Central African protected area after civil strife

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    Protected areas are crucial to safeguard Sub-Saharan Africa’s extraordinary and abundant megafauna. In many of these areas, instability has derailed conservation efforts and impeded adequate wildlife monitoring. Discovered in 2004, Eastern chimpanzees are found in the Central Uele Basin in northern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) within the Bili-Uéré Protected Areas Complex (BUPAC), the largest contiguous protected area in the country. BUPAC is threatened by habitat destruction, mining, wild meat trade, and insecurity. BUPAC chimpanzees are part of the largest remaining continuous population of the species in Africa; they are also being behaviourally unique. Forest elephants were frequent in the 1960’s in the BUPAC but have declined significantly up to 2004 - 2007. We used line transects to estimate Eastern chimpanzee and forest elephant density in the BUPAC core area in 2016 and 2019 and compared these with the 2004-2007 surveys. A total of 37 and 137 two km long line transects were systematically placed in 5,841 km2 and 6,176 km2 survey areas in 2016 and 2019, respectively. We found that chimpanzee density did not change during the two survey periods but indicators for forest elephant density decreased eight-fold. Human activities were detected mainly along the core area periphery in both survey years, where they overlapped with centres of animal activity. The stable high density of chimpanzees is a positive outcome for the core BUPAC. However, despite being a conservation priority area that has received relatively intensified protection, declining forest elephant numbers are likely to reflect the high number of human conflict hotspots in vicinity as well as the increasing human population density around the core area. We propose by elevating the core area to National Park whilst strengthening on the ground enforcement and management structures as well as legal measures against poaching might ensure the long-term survival of such an important area in Africa

    Even after armed conflict, the environmental quality of Indigenous Peoples' lands in biodiversity hotspots surpasses that of non-Indigenous lands

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    Unidad de excelencia María de Maeztu CEX2019-000940-MIndigenous Peoples lands cover over a fifth of the world's land surface and support high levels of biodiversity. However, for centuries Indigenous Peoples have suffered from deprivation, often dispossession, and even cultural genocide, a process continuing today in some regions. Biodiversity hotspots, global areas of high endemicity that are heavily threatened by habitat loss and other human activities are also affected by conflict. Although covering only 2.4 % of the world's surface, over 80 % of armed conflicts occurred in biodiversity hotspots between 1950 and 2000. Given that many hotspots overlap with Indigenous Peoples' lands, we asked whether the co-occurrence of Indigenous Peoples' lands and high ecological integrity, measured by using Intact Forest Landscapes as units which still contain significant biological diversity, and the Human Footprint as a proxy for anthropogenic impacts, increased the persistence of biodiversity in hotspots where there has been armed conflict. Our results show that, withinbiodiversity hotspots, armed conflict was more likely to occur on Indigenous Peoples' lands than non-Indigenous lands, yet environmental damage and anthropogenic impacts were both lower. We suggest that Indigenous Peoples have been able to moderate ecosystem degradation processes before, during, and after armed conflict because of their strong ties to their lands and their determination to defend their rights and territories. We argue that recognition and support for the efforts of Indigenous Peoples to protect their lands is not only socially just but also essential for meeting the now pressing global post-2020 conservation targets

    Wild meat hunting levels and trade in a West African protected area in Togo

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    We assessed numbers and biomass of species hunted and sold for wild meat in 12 park-adjacent settlements in the Fazao Malfakassa National Park (FMNP), Togo. From hunter interviews and market carcass counts we show that 33 species, 28 from hunter interviews and 26 from market surveys were taken respectively. A total of 2,605 animals were recorded in the entire study, 18 species during the wet season (740 animals) and 26 species in the dry season (1,865 animals). In markets, 754 carcasses of 19 species were traded during the wet season, and 1,896 carcasses of 24 species in the dry season. Most species were relatively small-bodied mammals (62% of total numbers of animals reported), the rest large ungulates. Species were generally of minor conservation concern (LC or NT) with only three EN and NE. From the gathered field data, we estimated that an average of 9,095 ± 5,613 animals per study village were hunted per year, amounting to a biomass of 198,334 ± 191,930 kg. Despite efforts to protect the wildlife within the FMNP, reported level of hunting, particularly of large ungulates within the park, the reported level of hunting is likely to have severe consequences on the long-term viability of this important protected area

    Trophic resource use by sympatric vs. allopatric Pelomedusid turtles in West African forest waterbodies

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    Organisms that are similar in size, morphological characteristics, and adaptations, including vertebrates, often coexist by partitioning the available resources (food, space, and time). So, studies of the dynamics of these cases of coexistence are scientifically interesting. Here, we study a coexistence case of two species of freshwater turtles inhabiting the forest waterbodies of West Africa, focusing on the dietary habits of the two species. We found that both turtle species are omnivorous generalists, eating both vegetal and animal matter abundantly. However, there were clear interspecific differences, with the larger of the two species (P. cupulatta) eating more vertebrates (mainly fish but occasionally other vertebrates), whereas P. castaneus consumed more invertebrates. These patterns appeared consistently within the species and across sites, highlighting that the same patterns were likely in other conspecific populations from the Upper Guinean forest streams (Côte d’Ivoire and Liberia). Our study also showed that interspecific competition for food does not occur between these two species; instead, previous studies uncovered that a clear partitioning of the habitat niche occurs. We conclude that the food resource is likely unlimited in the study areas, as it is not the case in more arid environments (since food shortages may occur during the dry season). We anticipate that, within the Pelomedusidae communities throughout Africa, intense competition for food probably occurs in the Sahel and Sudanian vegetation zones, particularly during the dry months, but is unlikely within the Guinea and wet savannah region and even less likely in the Guineo-Congolian rainforest region
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