1,331 research outputs found

    Infiltrating ductal carcinoma breast with central necrosis closely mimicking ductal carcinoma in situ (comedo type): a case series

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    Here we present a series of infiltrative ductal carcinoma breast cases (infiltrative ductal carcinoma with central necrosis) so closely mimicking \u27DCIS with central comedo necrosis\u27 that on initial morphological analysis these foci of tumors were labeled as DCIS (high grade, comedo). However on further histological work up and by using immunohistochemistry (IHC) for myoepithelial markers it was later confirmed that these were foci of infiltrative ductal carcinoma breast with central necrosis. This case series gives the realization that a breast carcinoma may be partly or entirely DCIS like yet invasive. In such a dilemma IHC especially for assessment of myoepithelial lining is very useful to differentiate DCIS comedo from invasive carcinoma with central necrosis

    Expression of Foxp3 in colorectal cancer but not in Treg cells correlates with disease progression in patients with colorectal cancer

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    Background: Regulatory T cells (Treg) expressing the transcription factor forkhead-box protein P3 (Foxp3) have been identified to counteract anti-tumor immune responses during tumor progression. Besides, Foxp3 presentation by cancer cells itself may also allow them to evade from effector T-cell responses, resulting in a survival benefit of the tumor. For colorectal cancer (CRC) the clinical relevance of Foxp3 has not been evaluated in detail. Therefore the aim of this study was to study its impact in colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods and Findings: Gene and protein analysis of tumor tissues from patients with CRC was performed to quantify the expression of Foxp3 in tumor infiltrating Treg and colon cancer cells. The results were correlated with clinicopathological parameters and patients overall survival. Serial morphological analysis demonstrated Foxp3 to be expressed in cancer cells. High Foxp3 expression of the cancer cells was associated with poor prognosis compared to patients with low Foxp3 expression. In contrast, low and high Foxp3 level in tumor infiltrating Treg cells demonstrated no significant differences in overall patient survival. Conclusions: Our findings strongly suggest that Foxp3 expression mediated by cancer cells rather than by Treg cells contribute to disease progression

    Type 1 plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) and its impact on angiogenesis, progression and patient survival after radical nephrectomy

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>To examine the expression of type 1 plasminogen inhibitor (PAI-1) in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC), and its possible association with microvessel density (MVD), the expression of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), nuclear grade, tumour stage, continuously coded tumour size (CCTS) and to assess the value of PAI as a prognostic marker in 162 patients with CCRCC treated with radical nephrectomy.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>A total of 172 consecutive patients with CCRCC treated with radical nephrectomy were enrolled in the study. The expression of PAI-1, TSP-1 and factor VIII were analysed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues without knowledge of the clinical outcome. Ten cases, where PAI-1 immunohistochemistry was not possible due to technical problems and lack of material, were excluded. Sixty-nine patients (43%) died of RCC, while 47 patients (29%) died of other diseases. Median follow-up was 13.8 years for the surviving 46 patients (28%).</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Nine percent of the tumours showed PAI-1 positivity. High expression of PAI-1 was significantly inversely correlated with TSP-1 (p = 0.046) and directly with advanced stage (p = 0.008), high NG (3+4) (p = 0.002), tumour size (p = 0.011), microvessel density (p = 0.049) and disease progression (p = 0.002). In univariate analysis PAI-1 was a significant prognosticator of cancer-specific survival (CSS) (p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that TNM stage (p < 0.001), PAI-1 (p = 0.020), TSP-1 (p < 0.001) and MVD (p = 0.007) were independent predictors of CSS.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>PAI-1 was found to be an independently significant prognosticator of CSS and a promoter of tumour angiogenesis, aggressiveness and progression in CCRCC.</p

    BRAF and PIK3CA genes are somatically mutated in hepatocellular carcinoma among patients from South Italy

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    Poor data have been previously reported about the mutation rates in K-RAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA genes among patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here we further elucidated the role of these genes in pathogenesis of primary hepatic malignancies. Archival tumour tissue from 65 HCC patients originating from South Italy were screened for mutations in these candidate genes by direct sequencing. Overall, oncogenic mutations were detected in 15 (23%) patients for BRAF gene, 18 (28%) for PIK3CA gene, and 1 (2%) for K-RAS gene. Using statistical analysis, BRAF mutations were significantly correlated with the presence of either multiple HCC nodules (P=0.021) or higher proliferation rates (P=0.034). Although further extensive screenings are awaited in HCC patients among different populations, our findings clearly indicated that mutational activation of both BRAF and PIK3CA genes does contribute to hepatocellular tumorigenesis at somatic level in Southern Italian population

    A study of lymph node ratio in stage IV colorectal cancer

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    which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Background: The finding of metastasis in colorectal cancer, stage IV disease, has a major impact on prognosis and treatment strategy. Known important factors include the extent of the metastasis and the patients &apos; performance status. The lymph node factors are of known importance in earlier cancer stages but less described in metastatic disease. The aim of the study was to evaluate lymph node status and ratio as prognostic markers in stage IV colorectal cancer. Methods: The study was retrospective and assessing all patients operated, with bowel resection, for an initial stage IV colorectal cancer during 1999–2003 (n = 136). Basic demographic data as well as given treatment was assessed. The Lymph node ratio (LNR), the quota between the number of lymph node metastasis and assessed lymph nodes, was calculated. LNR groups were created by ratio thirds, 3 equally sized groups. The analysis was made by LNR group and by eligibility for chemotherapy with cancer specific survival as outcome parameter. Results: The median survival (CSS) for the entire group was 431 days with great variability. For the patients eligible for chemotherapy it ranged from 791 days in LNR-group 1 to 433 days for th

    Radiological staging in breast cancer: which asymptomatic patients to image and how.

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    BACKGROUND: Approximately 4% of patients diagnosed with early breast cancer have occult metastases at presentation. Current national and international guidelines lack consensus on whom to image and how. METHODS: We assessed practice in baseline radiological staging against local guidelines for asymptomatic newly diagnosed breast cancer patients presenting to the Cambridge Breast Unit over a 9-year period. RESULTS: A total of 2612 patients were eligible for analysis; 91.7% were appropriately investigated. However in the subset of lymph node negative stage II patients, only 269 out of 354 (76.0%) investigations were appropriate. No patients with stage 0 or I disease had metastases; only two patients (0.3%) with stage II and or =4 positive lymph nodes), III and IV disease, respectively. CONCLUSION: These results prompted us to propose new local guidelines for staging asymptomatic breast cancer patients: only clinical stage III or IV patients require baseline investigation. The high specificity and convenience of computed tomography (chest, abdomen and pelvis) led us to recommend this as the investigation of choice in breast cancer patients requiring radiological staging

    Serum vitamin D levels and survival of patients with colorectal cancer: Post-hoc analysis of a prospective cohort study

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Recently, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels were shown to be associated with the survival of patients with colorectal cancer. However, 25OHD levels were measured a median of 6 years before diagnosis or were predicted levels. In this study, we directly measured serum 25OHD levels at surgery and examined the association with survival among patients with colorectal cancer.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>We started a prospective cohort study to find prognostic factors in patients with colorectal cancer from 2003 to 2008 and stored serum samples and clinical data. As part of a post-hoc analysis, serum 25OHD levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Association between overall survival and serum 25OHD levels were computed using the Cox proportional hazard model adjusted for month of serum sampling as well as age at diagnosis, gender, cancer stage, residual tumor after surgery, time period of surgery, location of tumor, adjuvant chemotherapy and number of lymph nodes with metastasis at surgery. Unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were determined.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Serum 25OHD levels were measured in 257 patients. Only 3% had sufficient levels (30 ng/ml and greater). Based on month of blood sampling, an annual oscillation of 25OHD levels was seen, with levels being lower in spring and higher in late summer. Higher 25OHD levels were associated with better overall survival under multi-variate analysis (HR, 0.91: 95% CI, 0.84 to 0.99, <it>P </it>= 0.027).</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>These results suggest that higher 25OHD levels at surgery may be associated with a better survival rate of patients with colorectal cancer.</p
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