43,189 research outputs found

    Out of equilibrium quantum field dynamics in external fields

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    The quantum dynamics of the symmetry broken \lambda (\Phi^2)^2 scalar field theory in the presence of an homogeneous external field is investigated in the large N limit. We consider an initial thermal state of temperature T for a constant external field J. A subsequent sign flip of the external field, J to -J, gives rise to an out of equilibrium nonperturbative quantum field dynamics. We review here the dynamics for the symmetry broken lambda(\Phi^2)^2 scalar N component field theory in the large N limit, with particular stress in the comparison between the results when the initial temperature is zero and when it is finite. The presence of a finite temperature modifies the dynamical effective potential for the expectation value, and also makes that the transition between the two regimes of the early dynamics occurs for lower values of the external field. The two regimes are characterized by the presence or absence of a temporal trapping close to the metastable equilibrium position of the potential. In the cases when the trapping occurs it is shorter for larger initial temperatures.Comment: LaTeX, 3 pages, 2 figures. Presented at the IVth International Conference on Quarks and Nuclear Physics (QNP06). Selected to appear in Eur. Phys. J.

    Transport reversal in a delayed feedback ratchet

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    Feedback flashing ratchets are thermal rectifiers that use information on the state of the system to operate the switching on and off of a periodic potential. They can induce directed transport even with symmetric potentials thanks to the asymmetry of the feedback protocol. We investigate here the dynamics of a feedback flashing ratchet when the asymmetry of the ratchet potential and of the feedback protocol favor transport in opposite directions. The introduction of a time delay in the control strategy allows one to nontrivially tune the relative relevance of the competing asymmetries leading to an interesting dynamics. We show that the competition between the asymmetries leads to a current reversal for large delays. For small ensembles of particles current reversal appears as the consequence of the emergence of an open-loop like dynamical regime, while for large ensembles of particles it can be understood as a consequence of the stabilization of quasiperiodic solutions. We also comment on the experimental feasibility of these feedback ratchets and their potential applications.Comment: LaTeX, 7 pages, 6 figure

    How occasional backstepping can speed up a processive motor protein

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    Fueled by the hydrolysis of ATP, the motor protein kinesin literally walks on two legs along the biopolymer microtubule. The number of accidental backsteps that kinesin takes appears to be much larger than what one would expect given the amount of free energy that ATP hydrolysis makes available. This is puzzling as more than a billion years of natural selection should have optimized the motor protein for its speed and efficiency. But more backstepping allows for the production of more entropy. Such entropy production will make free energy available. With this additional free energy, the catalytic cycle of the kinesin can be speeded up. We show how measured backstep percentages represent an optimum at which maximal net forward speed is achieved.Comment: LaTeX, 5 pages, 3 figure

    SUSY Dark Matter In Light Of CDMS/XENON Limits

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    In this talk we briefly review the current CDMS/XENON constraints on the neutralino dark matter in three popular supersymmetric models: the minimal (MSSM), the next-to-minimal (NMSSM) and the nearly minimal (nMSSM). The constraints from the dark matter relic density and various collider experiments are also taken into account. The conclusion is that for each model the current CDMS/XENON limits can readily exclude a large part of the parameter space allowed by other constraints and the future SuperCDMS or XENON100 can cover most of the allowed parameter space. The implication for the Higgs search at the LHC is also discussed. It is found that in the currently allowed parameter space the MSSM charged Higgs boson is quite unlikely to be discovered at the LHC while the neutral Higgs bosons HH and AA may be accessible at the LHC in the parameter space with a large ÎĽ\mu parameter.Comment: talk given at 2nd International Workshop on Dark Matter, Dark Energy and Matter-Antimatter Asymmetry, Nov 5-6, 2010, Hsinchu, Taiwan (to appear in Int. J. Mod. Phys. D

    Inflation from Tsunami-waves

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    We investigate inflation driven by the evolution of highly excited quantum states within the framework of out of equilibrium field dynamics. These states are characterized by a non-perturbatively large number of quanta in a band of momenta but with vanishing expectation value of the scalar field.They represent the situation in which initially a non-perturbatively large energy density is localized in a band of high energy quantum modes and are coined tsunami-waves. The self-consistent evolution of this quantum state and the scale factor is studied analytically and numerically. It is shown that the time evolution of these quantum states lead to two consecutive stages of inflation under conditions that are the quantum analogue of slow-roll. The evolution of the scale factor during the first stage has new features that are characteristic of the quantum state. During this initial stage the quantum fluctuations in the highly excited band build up an effective homogeneous condensate with a non- perturbatively large amplitude as a consequence of the large number of quanta. The second stage of inflation is similar to the usual classical chaotic scenario but driven by this effective condensate.The excited quantum modes are already superhorizon in the first stage and do not affect the power spectrum of scalar perturbations. Thus, this tsunami quantum state provides a field theoretical justification for chaotic scenarios driven by a classical homogeneous scalar field of large amplitude.Comment: LaTex, 36 pages, 7 .ps figures. Improved version to appear in Nucl. Phys.

    Threshold feedback control for a collective flashing ratchet: threshold dependence

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    We study the threshold control protocol for a collective flashing ratchet. In particular, we analyze the dependence of the current on the values of the thresholds. We have found analytical expressions for the small threshold dependence both for the few and for the many particle case. For few particles the current is a decreasing function of the thresholds, thus, the maximum current is reached for zero thresholds. In contrast, for many particles the optimal thresholds have a nonzero finite value. We have numerically checked the relation that allows to obtain the optimal thresholds for an infinite number of particles from the optimal period of the periodic protocol. These optimal thresholds for an infinite number of particles give good results for many particles. In addition, they also give good results for few particles due to the smooth dependence of the current up to these threshold values.Comment: LaTeX, 10 pages, 7 figures, improved version to appear in Phys. Rev.

    Closed-loop control strategy with improved current for a flashing ratchet

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    We show how to switch on and off the ratchet potential of a collective Brownian motor, depending only on the position of the particles, in order to attain a current higher than or at least equal to that induced by any periodic flashing. Maximization of instant velocity turns out to be the optimal protocol for one particle but is nevertheless defeated by a periodic switching when a sufficiently large ensemble of particles is considered. The protocol presented in this article, although not the optimal one, yields approximately the same current as the optimal protocol for one particle and as the optimal periodic switching for an infinite number of them.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figure

    Freezing of Nonlinear Bloch Oscillations in the Generalized Discrete Nonlinear Schrodinger Equation

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    The dynamics in a nonlinear Schrodinger chain in an homogeneous electric field is studied. We show that discrete translational invariant integrability-breaking terms can freeze the Bloch nonlinear oscillations and introduce new faster frequencies in their dynamics. These phenomena are studied by direct numerical integration and through an adiabatic approximation. The adiabatic approximation allows a description in terms of an effective potential that greatly clarifies the phenomenon.Comment: LaTeX, 7 pages, 6 figures. Improved version to appear in Phys. Rev.
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