4,069 research outputs found

    MIXED REALITY CONTENT ALIGNMENT IN MONUMENTAL ENVIRONMENTS

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    Mixed reality provides on-the-spot and real-time data access capabilities by making virtual models and information more intuitive and accessible. Furthermore, allowing the operator to perceive 3D as holograms would allow for a more natural and straightforward manipulation of the perceived 3D content by permitting the augmentation of real objects with various levels of data. This can be accomplished by appropriately registering and superimposing the presented 3D models with the surrounding environment. This work aims to provide a quantitative evaluation of HoloLens 2 capabilities in registering virtual content inside monumental spaces. Two different methodologies are evaluated: Vuforia image targets and Microsoft World Locking Tools (WLTs). Tests have been performed inside Milan Cathedral's monumental spaces. Here, ambience dimensions, single architectural element repetition and non-uniform lighting conditions push out-of-the-box methods to their limits. Results show that WLTs with their space pins API can correctly reference virtual content keeping deviations in the order of 15 cm coping with the scale error produced from sensors' drifts

    BIM SYSTEM FOR THE CONSERVATION AND PRESERVATION OF THE MOSAICS OF SAN MARCO IN VENICE

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    The Basilica of San Marco in Venice is a well-known masterpiece of World Heritage. It is a real multi-faceted architecture. The management of the church and its construction site is very complicated, and requires an efficient system to collect and manage different kinds of data. The BIM approach appeared to be the most suitable to collect multi-source data, to monitor activities and guarantee the well-timed operations inside the church. The purpose of this research was to build a BIM of the Basilica, considering all aspects that characterize it and that require particular care.Many problems affected the phase of the acquisition of data, and forced the team to establish a clear working pipeline that allowed the survey simultaneously, hand in hand, with all the usual activities of the church. The fundamental principle for the organization of the whole work was the subdivision of the entire complex in smaller parts, which could be managed independently, both in the acquisition and the modelling stage. This subdivision also reflects the method used for the photogrammetric acquisition. The complexity of some elements, as capitals and statues, was acquired with different Level of Detail (LoD) using various photogrammetric acquisitions: from the most general ones to describe the space, to the most detailed one 1:1 scale renderings. In this way, different LoD point clouds correspond to different areas or details.As evident, this pipeline allows to work in a more efficient way during the survey stage, but it involves more difficulties in the modelling stage. Because of the complexity of the church and the presence of sculptural elements represented by a mesh, from the beginning the problem of the amount of data was evident: it is nonsense to manage all models in a single file.The challenging aspect of the research job was the precise requirement of the Procuratoria di San Marco: to obtain the 1:1 representation of all the mosaics of the Basilica. This requirement significantly increased the effort in the acquisition stage, because it was necessary to reach a submillimetre resolution in the photographic images sufficient to distinguish perfectly each single tessera, also in the highest domes (28 meters). Furthermore, it introduced a new problem about the management of the gigapixel - orthophotos.The BIM approach presented in this paper tries to offer a solution to all these problems. The BIM application is based not on commercial software, but on a self-implemented system, which was previously tested on the Main Spire of Milano Cathedral. The multi-scale and multi-area approach have also been maintained in the BIM construction phase.In the case of Basilica di San Marco, the most important requirement was the management of the orthophotos of each single element. It was necessary to give the user the possibility to recover, for each item, not only the geometric model, but also the raster representation -orthophoto- of its surface: in order to do it, the BIM model acts as a three-dimensional catalogue

    Underwater calibration of dome port pressure housings.

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    Underwater photogrammetry using consumer grade photographic equipment can be feasible for different applications, e.g. archaeology, biology, industrial inspections, etc. The use of a camera underwater can be very different from its terrestrial use due to the optical phenomena involved. The presence of the water and camera pressure housing in front of the camera act as additional optical elements. Spherical dome ports are difficult to manufacture and consequently expensive but at the same time they are the most useful for underwater photogrammetry as they keep the main geometric characteristics of the lens unchanged. Nevertheless, the manufacturing and alignment of dome port pressure housing components can be the source of unexpected changes of radial and decentering distortion, source of systematic errors that can influence the final 3D measurements. The paper provides a brief introduction of underwater optical phenomena involved in underwater photography, then presents the main differences between flat and dome ports to finally discuss the effect of manufacturing on 3D measurements in two case studies

    PORTABLE MULTI-CAMERA SYSTEM: FROM FAST TUNNEL MAPPING TO SEMI-AUTOMATIC SPACE DECOMPOSITION AND CROSS-SECTION EXTRACTION

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    The paper outlines the first steps of a research project focused on the digitalization of underground tunnels for the mining industry. The aim is to solve the problem of rapidly, semi-automatically, efficiently, and reliably digitizing complex and meandering tunnels. A handheld multi-camera photogrammetric tool is used for the survey phase, which allows for the rapid acquisition of the image dataset needed to produce the 3D data. Moreover, since often, automatic, and fast acquisitions are not supported by easy-to-use tools to access and use the data at an operational level, a second aim of the research is to define a method able to arrange and organise the gathered data so that it would be easily accessible. The proposed approach is to compute the 3D skeleton of the surveyed environment by employing tools developed for the analysis of vascular networks in medical imagery. From the computed skeletonization of the underground tunnels, a method is proposed to automatically extrapolate valuable information such as cross-sections, decomposed portions of the tunnel, and the referenced images from the photogrammetric survey. The long-term research goal is to create an effective workflow, both at the hardware and software level, that can reduce computation times, process large amounts of data, and reduce dependency on high levels of experience

    SURVEY OF HISTORICAL GARDENS: MULTI-CAMERA PHOTOGRAMMETRY VS MOBILE LASER SCANNING

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    This paper presents an investigation into the characterization of historical gardens by comparing two 3D survey methodologies. In this context, approaches employing terrestrial laser scanning are considered the most accurate, while Mobile Mapping Systems (MMSs) are considered promising due to their extreme productivity. Less common is the use of close-range photogrammetry. This paper compares two approaches based on the use of a wearable MMS and the use of an in-house built photogrammetric multi-camera prototype. The comparison aims to assess the applicability of the two techniques in this field, evaluating their advantages and disadvantages in surveying a historical garden and extracting information for tree inventory, such as the DBH (Diameter at Breast Height) and canopy footprint. We compared the practicality of surveying and processing operations; and the quality and characteristics of the point clouds obtained. Both systems produced a dense representation of the terrain. The multi-camera survey resulted to be more defined due to the lower noise of the point cloud but incomplete in the definition of tree canopies. DBH of tree trunks can be extracted with both systems, except for thinner and finer diameter trunks detected by the MMS approach but not always by the multi-camera. The MMS approach proved more effective thanks to a shorter survey time required to cover an equal area and the fact that the MMS survey alone is sufficient for the geometric description of trees. In contrast, the multi-camera approach cannot avoid integration with an aerial survey for canopy reconstructio

    SURVEY OF HISTORICAL GARDENS: MULTI-CAMERA PHOTOGRAMMETRY VS MOBILE LASER SCANNING

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    This paper presents an investigation into the characterization of historical gardens by comparing two 3D survey methodologies. In this context, approaches employing terrestrial laser scanning are considered the most accurate, while Mobile Mapping Systems (MMSs) are considered promising due to their extreme productivity. Less common is the use of close-range photogrammetry. This paper compares two approaches based on the use of a wearable MMS and the use of an in-house built photogrammetric multi-camera prototype. The comparison aims to assess the applicability of the two techniques in this field, evaluating their advantages and disadvantages in surveying a historical garden and extracting information for tree inventory, such as the DBH (Diameter at Breast Height) and canopy footprint. We compared the practicality of surveying and processing operations; and the quality and characteristics of the point clouds obtained. Both systems produced a dense representation of the terrain. The multi-camera survey resulted to be more defined due to the lower noise of the point cloud but incomplete in the definition of tree canopies. DBH of tree trunks can be extracted with both systems, except for thinner and finer diameter trunks detected by the MMS approach but not always by the multi-camera. The MMS approach proved more effective thanks to a shorter survey time required to cover an equal area and the fact that the MMS survey alone is sufficient for the geometric description of trees. In contrast, the multi-camera approach cannot avoid integration with an aerial survey for canopy reconstruction

    Albumin concentration in the Bowman's capsule: Multiphoton microscopy vs micropuncture technique

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    Preliminary survey of historic buildings with wearable mobile mapping systems and uav photogrammetry

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    In cultural heritage, three-dimensional documentation of historic buildings is fundamental for conservation and valorisation projects. In recent years, the consolidated tools and methods: Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) and close-range photogrammetry, have been joined by portable Mobile Mapping Systems (MMSs), which can offer significant advantages in terms of speed of survey operations at the price of reduced accuracy. The reduction of survey times and, therefore, costs makes the application of MMS techniques ideal for the preliminary stages of analysis of historical artifacts, when a rapid survey is indispensable for estimating the costs of conservation interventions. In this paper, we present a methodology for the expeditious survey of historic buildings and the surrounding urban fabric that is based on the use of an MMS and an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The MMS is the Gexcel Heron MS Twin color. It was used to survey two architecture of interest and the urban context surrounding them from the ground level. The UAV is the DJI Mini 2, used to integrate the terrestrial survey by acquiring the buildings' roofs. The case study presented in the paper is the survey of San Clemente and San Zeno al Foro churches, two historic churches in the city centre of Brescia (Italy). The result are a complete point cloud of the two buildings and a metric virtual tour of all spaces. These results were made available to the architects through the Cintoo web platform to plan future activities

    Integration of historical GIS data in a HBIM system

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    The integration between BIM (Building Information Modeling) and GIS (Geographic Information System) is currently a highly debated research topic. However, the effective integration of the two workflows in a unique information system is still an open research field, especially when dealing with Cultural Heritage (CH). The paper describes an ongoing research on the development of a web information system able to integrate BIM and GIS data, with particular focus on the analysis of the historicized city and its main buildings over time. Three main aspects, in particular, are considered more relevant: (i) conceptual data organization to integrate GIS and BIM in a single environment; (ii) integration of data belonging to different historical periods for analyses over time (4D); (iii) integration into the system of datasets already structured in pre-existing HGIS and HBIM. Most (if not all) of the attributes must be linked with both 2D and 3D entities. The system should be queryable and with the possibility to edit the information regardless of the actual focus of the current user, either if he is more BIM or GIS oriented. This is one of the main requirement for the system not to be just a simple viewer of BIM and GIS data in a unique software environment. The system can manage, from a spatial point of view, different scales of detail, allowing the connection between data from the architectural scale to the territorial one and, from a temporal point of view, data belonging to different periods. All these features have been designed to meet, in particular, the requirements of CH and realize a Historical BIM-GIS system. Besides, the web architecture allows sharing information even between actors with different digital skills, without the need for specific software installed, and ensures portability and access from mobile devices

    TARGETLESS REGISTRATION METHODS BETWEEN UAV LIDAR AND WEARABLE MMS POINT CLOUDS

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    Fixed-wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) and wearable or portable Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS) are two widely used platforms for point cloud acquisition with Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) sensors. The two platforms acquire from distant viewpoints and produce complementary point clouds, one describing predominantly horizontal surfaces and the other primarily vertical. Thus, the registration of the two data is not straightforward. This paper presents a test of targetless registration between a UAV LiDAR point cloud and terrestrial MMS surveys. The case study is a vegetated hilly landscape characterized by the presence of a structure of interest; the UAV acquisition allows the entire area to be acquired from above, while the terrestrial MMS acquisitions will enable the construction of interest to be detailed. The paper describes the survey phase with both techniques. It focuses on processing and registration strategies to fuse the two data together. Our approach is based on the ICP (Iterative Closest Point) method by exploiting the data processing algorithms available in the Heron Desktop post-processing software for handling data acquired with the Heron Backpack MMS instrument. Two co-registration methods are compared. Both ways use the UAV point cloud as a reference and derive the registration of the terrestrial MMS data by finding ICP matches between the ground acquisition and the reference cloud exploiting only a few areas of overlap. The two methods are detailed in the paper, and both allow us to complete the co-registration task
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