14,226 research outputs found

    Gender and ethnicity-married immigrants in Britain

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    In this paper we investigate economic activity of female immigrants and their husbands in Britain. We distinguish between two immigrant groups: foreign born females who belong to an ethnic minority group and their husbands, and foreign born females who are white and their husbands. We compare these to native born white women and their husbands. Our analysis deviates from the usual mean analysis and investigates employment, hours worked and earnings for males and females, as well as their combined family earnings, along the distribution of husbands’ economic potential. We analyse the extent to which economic disadvantage may be reinforced on the household level. We investigate to what extent disadvantage can be explained by differences in observable characteristics. We analyse employment assimilation for all groups over the migration cycle. Our main results are that white female immigrants and their husbands are quite successful, with an overall advantage in earnings over white native born both individually and at the household level. On the other hand, minority immigrants and their husbands are less successful, in particular at the lower end of the husband’s distribution of economic potential. This is mainly due to low employment of both genders, which leads to disadvantage in earnings, intensified at the household level. Only part of this differential can be explained by observable characteristics. Over the migration cycle, the data suggests that employment differentials are large at entry for white immigrant females, and even larger for minority females, but the gap to the native born closes. Assimilation is more rapid for white females

    The impact of immigration on the UK labour market

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    This paper provides an empirical investigation of the way immigration affects labour market outcomes of native born workers in the UK, set beside a theoretical discussion of the underlying economic mechanisms. We discuss the problems that may arise in empirical estimations, and suggest ways to address these problems. Our empirical analysis is based on data from the British Labour Force Survey. We show that the overall skill distribution of Britain’s immigrant workforce is remarkably similar to that of the native born workforce. We investigate the impact of immigration on employment, participation, unemployment and wages of the resident population. We find no evidence that immigration has overall effects on any of these outcomes at the aggregate level. There is some evidence that effects are different for different educational groups

    Optimal control for one-qubit quantum sensing

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    Quantum systems can be exquisite sensors thanks to their sensitivity to external perturbations. This same characteristic also makes them fragile to external noise. Quantum control can tackle the challenge of protecting quantum sensors from environmental noise, while leaving their strong coupling to the target field to be measured. As the compromise between these two conflicting requirements does not always have an intuitive solution, optimal control based on numerical search could prove very effective. Here we adapt optimal control theory to the quantum sensing scenario, by introducing a cost function that, unlike the usual fidelity of operation, correctly takes into account both the unknown field to be measured and the environmental noise. We experimentally implement this novel control paradigm using a Nitrogen Vacancy center in diamond, finding improved sensitivity to a broad set of time varying fields. The demonstrated robustness and efficiency of the numerical optimization, as well as the sensitivity advantaged it bestows, will prove beneficial to many quantum sensing applications

    Metric Solutions in Torsionless Gauge for Vacuum Conformal Gravity

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    In a recent paper we have established the form of the metric-torsional conformal gravitational field equations, and in the present paper we study their vacuum configurations; we will consider a specific situation that will enable us to look for the torsionless limit: two types of special exact solutions are found eventually. A discussion on general remarks will follow.Comment: 11 page

    Labour market performance of immigrants in the UK labour market

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    From executive summary: This document is a report commissioned by the Home Office to analyse the performance of immigrants in the UK labour market. It attempts to draw a comprehensive picture of the labour market performance of immigrants, and the process of adaptation relative to the UK-born white population. Four indicators of economic performance are investigated: (i) employment, (ii) labour force participation, (iii) self-employment, and (iv) wages. The analysis distinguishes between males and females, and between groups of different origin. The effects of specific variables on these outcomes are investigated in detail. The report also considers labour market outcomes of ethnic minority individuals who are born in the UK, and compares their outcomes with those of UK-born white individuals, and of ethnic minority individuals who are foreign-born

    A Discussion on Dirac Field Theory, No-Go Theorems and Renormalizability

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    We study Dirac field equations coupled to electrodynamics with metric and torsion fields: we discuss how special spinorial solutions are incompatible with torsion; eventually these results will be used to sketch a discussion on the problem of renormalizability of point-like particles.Comment: 10 page

    Overexpression of ultraconserved region 83-induces lung cancer tumorigenesis

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    The expression of non–coding RNAs (ncRNAs) is dysregulated in human cancers. The transcribed ultraconserved regions (T-UCRs) express long ncRNAs involved in human carcinogenesis. T-UCRs are non-coding genomic sequence that are 100% conserved across humans, rats and mice. Conservation of genomic sequences across species intrinsically implies an essential functional role and so we considered the expression of T-UCRs in lung cancer. Using a custom microarray we analyzed the global expression of T-UCRs. Among these T-UCRs, the greatest variation was observed for antisense ultraconserved element 83 (uc.83-), which was upregulated in human lung cancer tissues compared with adjacent non cancerous tissues. Even though uc.83- is located within the long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1876 (LINC01876) gene, we found that the transcribed uc.83- is expressed independently of LINC01876 and was cloned as a 1143-bp RNA gene. In this study, functional analysis confirmed important effects of uc.83- on genes involved in cell growth of human cells. siRNA against uc.83- decreased the growth of lung cancer cells while the upregulation through a vector overexpressing the uc.83- RNA increased cell proliferation. We also show the oncogenic function of uc.83- is mediated by the phosphorylation of AKT and ERK 1/2, two important biomarkers of lung cancer cell proliferation. Based on our findings, inhibition against uc.83- could be a future therapeutic treatment for NSCLC to achieve simultaneous blockade of pathways involved in lung carcinogenesis
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