21,373 research outputs found

    A Faster Triphosphorylation Ribozyme.

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    In support of the RNA world hypothesis, previous studies identified trimetaphosphate (Tmp) as a plausible energy source for RNA world organisms. In one of these studies, catalytic RNAs (ribozymes) that catalyze the triphosphorylation of RNA 5'-hydroxyl groups using Tmp were obtained by in vitro selection. One ribozyme (TPR1) was analyzed in more detail. TPR1 catalyzes the triphosphorylation reaction to a rate of 0.013 min-1 under selection conditions (50 mM Tmp, 100 mM MgCl2, 22°C). To identify a triphosphorylation ribozyme that catalyzes faster triphosphorylation, and possibly learn about its secondary structure TPR1 was subjected to a doped selection. The resulting ribozyme, TPR1e, contains seven mutations relative to TPR1, displays a previously unidentified duplex that constrains the ribozyme's structure, and reacts at a 24-fold faster rate than the parent ribozyme. Under optimal conditions (150 mM Tmp, 650 mM MgCl2, 40°C), the triphosphorylation rate of TRP1e reaches 6.8 min-1

    Weed Control with Straw Residues in Occasional Direct Seeding of Faba Bean (Vicia faba sp.) in Organic Agriculture

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    In order to gain momentum in the consolidation process of no-tillage systems in Europe’s Organic Agriculture, occasional direct seeding (DS) of faba bean (FAB) into a mulch layer of residues from precrop oats should be scrutinized. In contrast to non-legumes, grain legumes do not depend on soil-borne nitrogen due to their ability to fix nitrogen symbiotically. Concerning weed infestation, straw residues left by precrops may at least physically suppress weeds. In order to prove this hypothesis, two field experiments were carried out in 2009 at two sites in the lower Rhineland region, Germany. DS treatments were combined with 0, 4, and 6 t ha-1 of straw residues. Mouldboard ploughing (MP) combined with conventional seedbed preparation was used as control. Compared to the DS treatment without straw residue (0 t ha-1), DS treatments with straw residues (4 and 6 t ha-1, resp.) resulted in significantly lower weed density (70 and 84 % resp.). Neither differences were observed in both shoot dry matter of FAB and weeds for DS with straw residues compared with MP, nor for the grain yields of FAB. We conclude that occasional DS of FAB in OA is successful to reduce annual weeds sufficiently and may not lead to reduced FAB yields

    Early thermalization at RHIC

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    It is shown that recent RHIC data on hadron spectra and elliptic flow can be excellently reproduced within a hydrodynamic description of the collision dynamics, and that this provides strong evidence for rapid thermalization while the system is still in the quark-gluon plasma phase. But even though the hydrodynamic approach provides an impressive description of the single-particle momentum distributions, it fails to describe the two-particle momentum correlation (HBT) data for central Au+Au collisions at RHIC. We suggest that this is not likely to be repaired by further improvements in our understanding of the early collision stages, but probably requires a better modelling of the freeze-out process. We close with a prediction of the phases of the azimuthal oscillations of the HBT radii in noncentral collisions at RHIC.Comment: 12 pages, including 6 figures. Invited talk at the International Conference on "Statistical QCD", Bielefeld, August 26-30, 2001, to appear in the proceedings (F. Karsch and H. Satz, eds.) in Nucl. Phys.