10,424 research outputs found

    Big words, small phrases: Mismatches between pause units and the polysynthetic word in Dalabon

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    This article uses instrumental data from natural speech to examine the phenomenon of pause placement within the verbal word in Dalabon, a polysynthetic Australian language of Arnhem Land. Though the phenomenon is incipient and in two sample texts occurs in only around 4% of verbs, there are clear possibilities for interrupting the grammatical word by pause after the pronominal prefix and some associated material at the left edge, though these within-word pauses are significantly shorter, on average, than those between words. Within-word pause placement is not random, but is restricted to certain affix boundaries; it requires that the paused-after material be at least dimoraic, and that the remaining material in the verbal word be at least disyllabic. Bininj Gun-wok, another polysynthetic language closely related to Dalabon, does not allow pauses to interrupt the verbal word, and the Dalabon development appears to be tied up with certain morphological innovations that have increased the proportion of closed syllables in the pronominal prefix zone of the verb. Though only incipient and not yet phonologized, pause placement in Dalabon verbs suggests a phonology-driven route by which polysynthetic languages may ultimately become less morphologically complex by fracturing into smaller units


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    The present study selected as its objective the development of a rating scale for use by psychologists wishing to measure psychopharmacologically-induced changes in the behavior of institutionalized mentally retarded children. The need for such a scale is evidenced by the recent interest these drugs have created in the field of mental retardation. In constructing the rating scale, the investigator was guided by the neurophysiological theories of drug action and the findings of experimental and non-experimental empirical investigations. The specific content of the scale was procured primarily by: (1) circulating a questionnaire designed to elicit behavior descriptions of atypical mentally retarded children, to ninety-six psychiatric aides employed at the Parsons State Hospital and Training Center, Parsons, Kansas; and (2) reviewing existing rating scales and check lists used as criterion measures in psychopharmacological research studies. From the above data, 174 Items (descriptive statements) were designed for eight categories of behavior which represent the major postulated effects of psychothropic drugs

    Specialist Legal Clinics: their pedagogy, risks and payoffs as externships

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    Within clinical legal education there is a great deal of discussion at the moment about externships. Part of the motivation for all this conversation is the desire of law schools to get in on the clinical ‘act’ as inexpensively as possible. Some law Deans have the view that they can outsource clinics to firms and agencies and achieve reputable clinical outcomes with little or no expenditure. We beg to differ and in this article we explain why law school management of an externship experience is resource intensive and nearly as complicated as an in-house clinic. It may be less expensive, but an externship can never be set and forgotten.We also discuss the peculiarities of specialist externships, since many externship sites are in fact specialist legal practices. In fact, the attraction of an externship is the access it provides for students to participate in a specialised area of law, while overseen by specialist lawyers. We set out in detail the advantages and disadvantages of operating such placements and connect these to the recent Australian Best Practices in clinical legal education. To begin with however, we need to define some terms as they are used in an Australian clinical setting

    On the tuning of a wave-energy driven oscillating-water-column seawater pump to polychromatic waves

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    Performance of wave-energy devices of the oscillating water column (OWC) type is greatly enhanced when a resonant condition with the forcing waves is maintained. The natural frequency of such systems can in general be tuned to resonate with a given wave forcing frequency. In this paper we address the tuning of an OWC sea-water pump to polychromatic waves. We report results of wave tank experiments, which were conducted with a scale model of the pump. Also, a numerical solution for the pump equations, which were proven in previous work to successfully describe its behavior when driven by monochromatic waves, is tested with various polychromatic wave spectra. Results of the numerical model forced by the wave trains measured in the wave tank experiments are used to develop a tuning criterion for the sea-water pump.Comment: 21 pages, 14 figure