141 research outputs found

    Normative and self-perceived orthodontic treatment need of a Peruvian university population

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    BACKGROUND: Previous studies on orthodontic treatment need in young adults have shown that up to 50% had malocclusions that needed orthodontic treatment. The aims of this study were to assess the normative and self-perceived need for orthodontic treatment using the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) and to determine if the treatment need levels were influenced by sex, age and socio-economic status (SES) in a sample of Peruvian young adults. METHODS: 281 first-year students (157 male and 124 female students) with a mean age of 18.1 +/- 1.6 years were randomly selected and evaluated through the Dental Health Component (DHC) and Aesthetic Component (AC) of the IOTN. Structured interview and clinical examination were used to assess the students. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square tests were used for data analysis with statistical significance set at P < 0.05. RESULTS: An intra-examiner reliability of 0.89 was obtained (weighted Kappa). The percentage of students according to SES was 51.2%, 40.6% and 8.2% corresponding to low, medium and high SES respectively. The percentage of students with DHC grades 4–5 was 29.9% whereas the percentage of students with AC grades 8–10 was 1.8%. There were no significant differences in the distribution of normative and self-perceived orthodontic treatment need based on sex, age and SES comparisons. CONCLUSION: Normative orthodontic treatment need was not matched by a similar level of self-perceived treatment need in these young adults. Sex, age and SES were non-significant factors associated with levels of treatment need

    Reproducibility of 3-dimensional ultrasound readings of volume of carotid atherosclerotic plaque

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Non-invasive 3-dimensional (3D) ultrasound (US) has emerged as the predominant approach for evaluating the progression of carotid atherosclerosis and its response to treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the quality of a central reading procedure concerning plaque volume (PV), measured by 3D US in a multinational US trial.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Two data sets of 45 and 60 3D US patient images of plaques (mean PV, 71.8 and 39.8 μl, respectively) were used. PV was assessed by means of manual planimetry. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was applied to determine reader variabilities. The repeatability coefficient (RC) and the coefficient of variation (CV) were used to investigate the effect of number of slices (S) in manual planimetry and plaque size on measurement variability.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Intra-reader variability was small as reflected by ICCs of 0.985, 0.967 and 0.969 for 3 appointed readers. The ICC value generated between the 3 readers was 0.964, indicating that inter-reader variability was small, too. Subgroup analyses showed that both intra- and inter-reader variabilities were lower for larger than for smaller plaques. Mean CVs were similar for the 5S- and 10S-methods with a RC of 4.7 μl. The RC between both methods as well as the CVs were comparatively lower for larger plaques.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>By implementing standardised central 3D US reading protocols and strict quality control procedures highly reliable ultrasonic re-readings of plaque images can be achieved in large multicentre trials.</p

    Positive association between mammographic breast density and bone mineral density in the Postmenopausal Estrogen/Progestin Interventions Study

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    INTRODUCTION: Mammographic breast density is a strong independent risk factor for breast cancer. We hypothesized that demonstration of an association between mammographic breast density and bone mineral density (BMD) would suggest a unifying underlying mechanism influencing both breast density and BMD. METHODS: In a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from the Postmenopausal Estrogen/Progestin Interventions Study (PEPI), participants were aged 45 to 64 years and were at least 1 year postmenopausal. Mammographic breast density (percentage of the breast composed of dense tissue), the outcome, was assessed with a computer-assisted percentage-density method. BMD, the primary predictor, was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Women quitting menopausal hormone therapy to join PEPI were designated recent hormone users. RESULTS: The mean age of the 594 women was 56 years. The average time since menopause was 5.6 years. After adjustment for age, body mass index, and cigarette smoking, in women who were not recent hormone users before trial enrollment (n = 415), mammographic density was positively associated with total hip (P = 0.04) and lumbar (P = 0.08) BMD. Mammographic density of recent hormone users (n = 171) was not significantly related to either total hip (P = 0.51) or lumbar (P = 0.44) BMD. In participants who were not recent hormone users, mammographic density was 4% greater in the highest quartile of total hip BMD than in the lowest. In participants who were not recent hormone users, mammographic density was 5% greater in the highest quartile of lumbar spine BMD than in the lowest. CONCLUSION: Mammographic density and BMD are positively associated in women who have not recently used postmenopausal hormones. A unifying biological mechanism may link mammographic density and BMD. Recent exogenous postmenopausal hormone use may obscure the association between mammographic density and BMD by having a persistent effect on breast tissue

    Genome architecture enables local adaptation of Atlantic cod despite high connectivity

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    Adaptation to local conditions is a fundamental process in evolution; however, mechanisms maintaining local adaptation despite high gene flow are still poorly understood. Marine ecosystems provide a wide array of diverse habitats that frequently promote ecological adaptation even in species characterized by strong levels of gene flow. As one example, populations of the marine fish Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) are highly connected due to immense dispersal capabilities but nevertheless show local adaptation in several key traits. By combining population genomic analyses based on 12K single nucleotide polymorphisms with larval dispersal patterns inferred using a biophysical ocean model, we show that Atlantic cod individuals residing in sheltered estuarine habitats of Scandinavian fjords mainly belong to offshore oceanic populations with considerable connectivity between these diverse ecosystems. Nevertheless, we also find evidence for discrete fjord populations that are genetically differentiated from offshore populations, indicative of local adaptation, the degree of which appears to be influenced by connectivity. Analyses of the genomic architecture reveal a significant overrepresentation of a large ~5 Mb chromosomal rearrangement in fjord cod, previously proposed to comprise genes critical for the survival at low salinities. This suggests that despite considerable connectivity with offshore populations, local adaptation to fjord environments may be enabled by suppression of recombination in the rearranged region. Our study provides new insights into the potential of local adaptation in high gene flow species within fine geographical scales and highlights the importance of genome architecture in analyses of ecological adaptation

    Functional imaging of cognition in an old-old population: A case for portable functional near-infrared spectroscopy

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    In this study, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to record brain activa- tion during cognitive testing in older individuals (88±6yo; N = 19) living in residential care communities. This population, which is often associated with loss of personal independence due to physical or cognitive decline associated with aging, is also often under-represented in neuroscience research because of a limited means to participate in studies which often take place in large urban or university centers. In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility and initial results using a portable 8-source by 4-detector fNIRS system to measure brain activity from participants within residential care community centers. Using fNIRS, brain sig- nals were recorded during a series of computerized cognitive tests, including a Symbol Digit Coding test (SDC), Stroop Test (ST), and Shifting Attention Test (SAT). The SDC and SAT elicited greater activity in the left middle frontal region of interest. Three components of the ST produced increases in the right middle frontal and superior frontal, and left superior frontal regions. An association between advanced age and increased activation in the right middle frontal region was observed during the incongruent ST. Although none of the partici- pants had clinical dementia based on the short portable mental status questionnaire, the group performance was slightly below age-normed values on these cognitive tests. These results demonstrate the capability for obtaining functional neuroimaging measures in resi- dential settings, which ultimately may aid in prognosis and care related to dementia in older adults

    Comparison of physical fitness between healthy and mild‐to‐moderate asthmatic children with exercise symptoms: A cross‐sectional study

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    .Objective Asthma is a chronic disease that may affect physical fitness, although its primary effects on exercise capacity, muscle strength, functionality and lifestyle, in children and adolescents, are still poorly understood. This study aimed to evaluate the differences in cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength, lifestyle, lung function, and functionality between asthmatics with exercise symptoms and healthy children. In addition, we have analyzed the association between clinical history and the presence of asthma. Study Design Cross-sectional study including 71 patients with a diagnosis of asthma and 71 healthy children and adolescents (7–17 years of age). Anthropometric data, clinical history, disease control, lifestyle (KIDMED and physical activity questionnaires), lung function (spirometry), exercise-induced bronchoconstriction test, aerobic fitness (cardiopulmonary exercise test), muscle strength and functionality (timed up and go; timed up and down stairs) were evaluated. Results Seventy-one patients with asthma (mean age 11.5 ± 2.7) and 71 healthy subjects (mean age 10.7 ± 2.5) were included. All asthmatic children had mild to moderate and stable asthma. EIB occurred in 56.3% of asthmatic children. Lung function was significantly (p < .05) lower in the asthmatic group when compared to healthy peers, as well as the cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength, lifestyle and functionality. Moreover, asthmatic children were more likely to have atopic dermatitis, allergic reactions, food allergies, and a family history of asthma when compared to healthy children. Conclusions Children with mild-to-moderate asthma presenting exercise symptoms show a reduction in cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength, lung function, functionality, and lifestyle when compared to healthy peers. The study provides data for pediatricians to support exercise practice aiming to improve prognosis and quality of life in asthmatic children.S