4,570 research outputs found

    Resource and Energy Efficient Method of Dried Fish Production

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    The authors of the article propose a method of convective dehydration of fish products, which has an intermittent nature of implementation. The dehydration process consists of the continuous initial phase and following combined periods consisting of phases of drying and relaxation of dehydrated surface layer of the raw material. The necessity of applying relaxation is due to the fact that during the drying process the surface layers that have lost some of the moisture are significantly densified. The size of the capillaries for moisture passing through the surface layers is reduced. Near the surface a layer is formed, which lacks the significant mass of moisture and has low diffusion properties. As a result, the dehydration process of the entire sample slows down. The rational use of relaxation leads to restoring the moisture-conducting properties of the surface layer of fish. The supply of electrical energy to the heating elements is stopped during the relaxation. The minimum circulation rate of the drying agent is maintained in the drying installation. Fresh air with a lower temperature and higher relative humidity than the drying agent is supplied to the drying agent. The conditions in the drying installation restrain external mass transfer and facilitate to the relaxation of the dehydrated surface layer, that is, to the redistribution of moisture in the thickness of the fish. The proposed method of dehydration of fish raw material reduces the cost of electric energy in the production of dried products and provides more rational coolant usage. The final fish products have more attractive appearance due to reduction of tissue deformation as a result of applying the relaxation of dehydrated surface layer

    Effects of the Marinating Process on the Quality of the Domesticated Reindeer (Rangifer Tarandus) By-products

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    The development of methods for the complete and complex processing of raw food materials is one of the main ways to achieve the efficiency of its use: reduce production costs, expand products range and increase products demand. Over the last years, growing attention is paid to the search and development of new technologies of the processing of non-traditional and underutilized types of food materials, such as meat and by-products from alternative animal species. The research was aimed at studying the influence of the marinating process on the quality of the newly developed food product. The object of research was the tongue of domesticated reindeer, the underutilized raw materials of the Kola Peninsula. Product samples were taken in 2012-2016 on the basis of the agricultural production cooperative ”Tundra”, research was carried out on the basis of the Department of Food Production Technologies of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education ”Murmansk State Technical University”. The effects of marinating and duration of heat treatment on the quality of the product samples was studied. The parameters characterizing the generalized indicator of quality were selected - organoleptic (appearance, flavor and taste), physical (cutting force) and microbiological. The optimal composition of the marinade is proposed. The technology of culinary processing of the domesticated reindeer tongue was optimized

    The study of initial permeability temperature dependences for LiTiZn ferrite ceramics

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    Results of obtaining and analyzing the temperature dependences of initial permeability of ferrite ceramics are presented in the paper. It was shown that the level of the defective state of ferrite ceramics can be obtained from the value of two parameters [alpha] and [beta] of the phenomenological expression describing the experimental dependences. The results showed that the main criterion of the defect state is the parameter [beta]/[alpha], which is related to the elastic stresses in the material. An indicator of the structure perfection is also the value of the maximum of the initial permeability near the Curie temperature

    Motion of liquid and stabilising particles in individual liquid aluminium alloy films

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    Liquid metallic films are the constituting elements of metallic foams and are governed by a complex interplay between the liquid here aluminium alloys , the film stabilising solid particles contained in the melt, and the gas phase. We use synchrotron X ray radioscopy to study particle dynamics and analyse particle motions by applying novel image processing techniques. We find that particles move alone and as clusters. They may move permanently with the melt or can be trapped by the film surface and subsequently even de trapped again. The aim of this work is to observe interactions between particles or particle clusters and the film surfaces, and to understand how liquid flow in films is reduced and film stability increased by such particle

    Mixing instabilities during shearing of metals

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    Severe plastic deformation of solids is relevant to many materials processing techniques as well as tribological events such as wear. It results in microstructural refinement, redistribution of phases, and ultimately even mixing. However, mostly due to inability to experimentally capture the dynamics of deformation, the underlying physical mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we introduce a strategy that reveals details of morphological evolution upon shearing up to ultrahigh strains. Our experiments on metallic multilayers find that mechanically stronger layers either fold in a quasi-regular manner and subsequently evolve into periodic vortices, or delaminate into finer layers before mixing takes place. Numerical simulations performed by treating the phases as nonlinear viscous fluids reproduce the experimental findings and reveal the origin for emergence of a wealth of morphologies in deforming solids. They show that the same instability that causes kilometer-thick rock layers to fold on geological timescales is acting here at micrometer level