201 research outputs found

    Mixture effects at very low doses with combinations of anti-androgenic pesticides, antioxidants, industrial pollutant and chemicals used in personal care products

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    This article has been made available through the Brunel Open Access Publishing Fund.Many xenobiotics have been identified as in vitro androgen receptor (AR) antagonists, but information about their ability to produce combined effects at low concentrations ismissing. Such data can reveal whether joint effects at the receptor are induced at low levels andmay support the prioritisation of in vivo evaluations and provide orientations for the grouping of anti-androgens in cumulative risk assessment. Combinations of 30 AR antagonists from a wide range of sources and exposure routes (pesticides, antioxidants, parabens, UV-filters, synthetic musks, bisphenol-A, benzo(a)pyrene, perfluorooctane sulfonate and pentabromodiphenyl ether) were tested using a reporter gene assay (MDA-kb2). Chemicalswere combined at threemixture ratios, equivalent to single components' effect concentrations that inhibit the action of dihydrotesterone by 1%, 10% or 20%. Concentration addition (CA) and independent action were used to calculate additivity expectations. We observed complete suppression of dihydrotestosterone effects when chemicals were combined at individual concentrations eliciting 1%, 10% or 20% AR antagonistic effect. Due to the large number of mixture components, the combined AR antagonistic effects occurred at very low concentrations of individual mixture components. CA slightly underestimated the combined effects at all mixture ratios. In conclusion, large numbers of AR antagonists froma wide variety of sources and exposure routes have the ability of acting together at the receptor to produce joint effects at very low concentrations. Significant mixture effects are observed when chemicals are combined at concentrations that individually do not induce observable AR antagonistic effects. Cumulative risk assessment for AR antagonists should apply grouping criteria based on effects where data are available, rather than on criteria of chemical similarity

    Genotoxic mixtures and dissimilar action: Concepts for prediction and assessment

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    This article has been made available through the Brunel Open Access Publishing Fund. This article is distributed under the terms of the creative commons Attribution license which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s)and the source are credited.Combinations of genotoxic agents have frequently been assessed without clear assumptions regarding their expected (additive) mixture effects, often leading to claims of synergisms that might in fact be compatible with additivity. We have shown earlier that the combined effects of chemicals, which induce micronuclei (MN) in the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay in Chinese hamster ovary-K1 cells by a similar mechanism, were additive according to the concept of concentration addition (CA). Here, we extended these studies and investigated for the first time whether valid additivity expectations can be formulated for MN-inducing chemicals that operate through a variety of mechanisms, including aneugens and clastogens (DNA cross-linkers, topoisomerase II inhibitors, minor groove binders). We expected that their effects should follow the additivity principles of independent action (IA). With two mixtures, one composed of various aneugens (colchicine, flubendazole, vinblastine sulphate, griseofulvin, paclitaxel), and another composed of aneugens and clastogens (flubendazole, doxorubicin, etoposide, melphalan and mitomycin C), we observed mixture effects that fell between the additivity predictions derived from CA and IA. We achieved better agreement between observation and prediction by grouping the chemicals into common assessment groups and using hybrid CA/IA prediction models. The combined effects of four dissimilarly acting compounds (flubendazole, paclitaxel, doxorubicin and melphalan) also fell within CA and IA. Two binary mixtures (flubendazole/paclitaxel and flubendazole/doxorubicin) showed effects in reasonable agreement with IA additivity. Our studies provide a systematic basis for the investigation of mixtures that affect endpoints of relevance to genotoxicity and show that their effects are largely additive.UK Food Standards Agenc

    Cyclohexane-1,2-Dione Hydrolase from Denitrifying Azoarcus sp Strain 22Lin, a Novel Member of the Thiamine Diphosphate Enzyme Family

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    Alicyclic compounds with hydroxyl groups represent common structures in numerous natural compounds, such as terpenes and steroids. Their degradation by microorganisms in the absence of dioxygen may involve a C—C bond ring cleavage to form an aliphatic intermediate that can be further oxidized. The cyclohexane-1,2-dione hydrolase (CDH) (EC 3.7.1.11) from denitrifying Azoarcus sp. strain 22Lin, grown on cyclohexane-1,2-diol as a sole electron donor and carbon source, is the first thiamine diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent enzyme characterized to date that cleaves a cyclic aliphatic compound. The degradation of cyclohexane-1,2-dione (CDO) to 6-oxohexanoate comprises the cleavage of a C—C bond adjacent to a carbonyl group, a typical feature of reactions catalyzed by ThDP-dependent enzymes. In the subsequent NAD+-dependent reaction, 6-oxohexanoate is oxidized to adipate. CDH has been purified to homogeneity by the criteria of gel electrophoresis (a single band at ∼59 kDa; calculated molecular mass, 64.5 kDa); in solution, the enzyme is a homodimer (∼105 kDa; gel filtration). As isolated, CDH contains 0.8 ± 0.05 ThDP, 1.0 ± 0.02 Mg2+, and 1.0 ± 0.015 flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) per monomer as a second organic cofactor, the role of which remains unclear. Strong reductants, Ti(III)-citrate, Na+-dithionite, and the photochemical 5-deazaflavin/oxalate system, led to a partial reduction of the FAD chromophore. The cleavage product of CDO, 6-oxohexanoate, was also a substrate; the corresponding cyclic 1,3- and 1,4-diones did not react with CDH, nor did the cis- and trans-cyclohexane diols. The enzymes acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, pyruvate oxidase (POX) from Lactobacillus plantarum, benzoylformate decarboxylase from Pseudomonas putida, and pyruvate decarboxylase from Zymomonas mobilis were identified as the closest relatives of CDH by comparative amino acid sequence analysis, and a ThDP binding motif and a 2-fold Rossmann fold for FAD binding could be localized at the C-terminal end and central region of CDH, respectively. A first mechanism for the ring cleavage of CDO is presented, and it is suggested that the FAD cofactor in CDH is an evolutionary relict

    Role of quantum coherence in chromophoric energy transport

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    The role of quantum coherence and the environment in the dynamics of excitation energy transfer is not fully understood. In this work, we introduce the concept of dynamical contributions of various physical processes to the energy transfer efficiency. We develop two complementary approaches, based on a Green's function method and energy transfer susceptibilities, and quantify the importance of the Hamiltonian evolution, phonon-induced decoherence, and spatial relaxation pathways. We investigate the Fenna-Matthews-Olson protein complex, where we find a contribution of coherent dynamics of about 10% and of relaxation of 80%.Comment: 5 pages, 3 figures, included static disorder, correlated environmen

    Structural and spectroscopic characterization of a HdrA-like subunit from Hyphomicrobium denitrificans

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    Funding Information: We thank Laurenz Heidrich for help with statistical analyses. This work was supported by grant Da 351/8‐1 (to CD) from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (Portugal) (grant PTDC/BIA‐BQM/29118 and R&D units MOSTMICRO‐ITQB (UIDB/04612/2020 and UIDP/04612/2020), and European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program (grant agreement No 810856). Open access funding enabled and organized by Projekt DEAL. Publisher Copyright: © 2020 The Authors. The FEBS Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Federation of European Biochemical Societies Copyright: Copyright 2021 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.Many bacteria and archaea employ a novel pathway of sulfur oxidation involving an enzyme complex that is related to the heterodisulfide reductase (Hdr or HdrABC) of methanogens. As a first step in the biochemical characterization of Hdr-like proteins from sulfur oxidizers (sHdr), we structurally analyzed the recombinant sHdrA protein from the Alphaproteobacterium Hyphomicrobium denitrificans at 1.4 Å resolution. The sHdrA core structure is similar to that of methanogenic HdrA (mHdrA) which binds the electron-bifurcating flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), the heart of the HdrABC-[NiFe]-hydrogenase catalyzed reaction. Each sHdrA homodimer carries two FADs and two [4Fe–4S] clusters being linked by electron conductivity. Redox titrations monitored by electron paramagnetic resonance and visible spectroscopy revealed a redox potential between −203 and −188 mV for the [4Fe–4S] center. The potentials for the FADH•/FADH− and FAD/FADH• pairs reside between −174 and −156 mV and between −81 and −19 mV, respectively. The resulting stable semiquinone FADH• species already detectable in the visible and electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of the as-isolated state of sHdrA is incompatible with basic principles of flavin-based electron bifurcation such that the sHdr complex does not apply this new mode of energy coupling. The inverted one-electron FAD redox potentials of sHdr and mHdr are clearly reflected in the different FAD-polypeptide interactions. According to this finding and the assumption that the sHdr complex forms an asymmetric HdrAA′B1C1B2C2 hexamer, we tentatively propose a mechanism that links protein-bound sulfane oxidation to sulfite on HdrB1 with NAD+ reduction via lipoamide disulfide reduction on HdrB2. The FAD of HdrA thereby serves as an electron storage unit. Database: Structural data are available in PDB database under the accession number 6TJR.publishe
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