4,190 research outputs found

### Estimation Schemes for Networked Control Systems Using UDP-Like Communication

In this work we consider a class of networked control systems (NCS) when the control signal is sent to the plant via a UDP-like communication protocol, the controller sends a communication packet to the plant across a lossy network but the controller does not receive any acknowledgement signal indicating the status of reception/delivery of the control packet. Standard observer based estimators assume the estimator has knowledge of what control signal is applied to the plant, but under the UDP-like communication scheme the estimator does not know what control is applied. Continuing previous work, we present a simple estimation algorithm consisting of a state estimator and mode observer. For single input systems we can add an extra control signal that guarantees recovery of the fate of the control packet. Using a modified state feedback with the added input we can guarantee the estimation error is bounded as is the expected value of the state. This extra input is removed and sufficient conditions on the system properties are given to assure the estimation remain bounded. Comparisons are made between the algorithm presented and the method of unknown input observer. Simulations are provided to demonstrate the algorithm

### Kalman Filtering Over A Packet Dropping Network: A Probabilistic Approach

We consider the problem of state estimation of a discrete time process over a packet dropping network. Previous pioneering work on Kalman filtering with intermittent observations is concerned with the asymptotic behavior of E[P_k], i.e., the expected value of the error covariance, for a given packet arrival rate. We consider a different performance metric, Pr[P_k ≤ M], i.e., the probability that P_k is bounded by a given M, and we derive lower and upper bounds on Pr[P_k ≤ M]. We are also able to recover the results in the literature when using Pr[P_k ≤ M] as a metric for scalar systems. Examples are provided to illustrate the theory developed in the paper

### Kalman Filtering Over a Packet-Dropping Network: A Probabilistic Perspective

We consider the problem of state estimation of a discrete time process over a packet-dropping network. Previous work on Kalman filtering with intermittent observations is concerned with the asymptotic behavior of E[P_k], i.e., the expected value of the error covariance, for a given packet arrival rate. We consider a different performance metric, Pr[P_k ≤ M], i.e., the probability that P_k is bounded by a given M. We consider two scenarios in the paper. In the first scenario, when the sensor sends its measurement data to the remote estimator via a packet-dropping network, we derive lower and upper bounds on Pr[P_k ≤ M]. In the second scenario, when the sensor preprocesses the measurement data and sends its local state estimate to the estimator, we show that the previously derived lower and upper bounds are equal to each other, hence we are able to provide a closed form expression for Pr[P_k ≤ M]. We also recover the results in the literature when using Pr[P_k ≤ M] as a metric for scalar systems. Examples are provided to illustrate the theory developed in the paper

### An Estimation Algorithm for a Class of Networked Control Systems Using UDP-Like Communication Schemes

In this work we consider a class of networked control systems (NCS) when the control signal is sent to the plant via a UDP-like communication protocol. In this case the controller sends a communication packet to the plant across a lossy network, but the controller does not receive any acknowledgement signal indicating the status of the control packet. Standard observer based estimators assume the estimator has knowledge of what control signal is applied to the plant. Under the UDP-like protocol the controller/estimator does not have explicit knowledge whether the control signals have been applied to the plant or not. We present a simple estimation and control algorithm that consists of a state and mode observer as well as a constraint on the control signal sent to the plant. For the class of systems considered, discrete time LTI plants where at least one of the states that is directly affected by the input is also part of the measurement vector, the estimator is able to recover the fate of the control packet from the measurement at the next timestep and exhibit better performance than other naive schemes. For single-input-single-output (SISO) systems we are able to show convergence properties of the estimation error and closed loop stability. Simulations are provided to demonstrate the algorithm and show its effectiveness

### Debye Sources and the Numerical Solution of the Time Harmonic Maxwell Equations, II

In this paper, we develop a new integral representation for the solution of
the time harmonic Maxwell equations in media with piecewise constant dielectric
permittivity and magnetic permeability in R^3. This representation leads to a
coupled system of Fredholm integral equations of the second kind for four
scalar densities supported on the material interface. Like the classical Muller
equation, it has no spurious resonances. Unlike the classical approach,
however, the representation does not suffer from low frequency breakdown. We
illustrate the performance of the method with numerical examples.Comment: 36 pages, 5 figure

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