236 research outputs found

    Discovery of a Second L Subdwarf in the Two Micron All Sky Survey

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    I report the discovery of the second L subdwarf identified in the Two Micron All Sky Survey, 2MASS J16262034+3925190. This high proper motion object (mu = 1.27+/-0.03 "/yr) exhibits near-infrared spectral features indicative of a subsolar metallicity L dwarf, including strong metal hydride and H2O absorption bands, pressure-broadened alkali lines, and blue near-infrared colors caused by enhanced collision-induced H2 absorption. This object is of later type than any of the known M subdwarfs, but does not appear to be as cool as the apparently late-type sdL 2MASS 0532+8246. The radial velocity (Vrad = -260+/-35 km/s) and estimated tangential velocity (Vtan ~ 90-210 km/s) of 2MASS 1626+3925 indicate membership in the Galactic halo, and this source is likely near or below the hydrogen burning minimum mass for a metal-poor star. L subdwarfs such as 2MASS 1626+3925 are useful probes of gas and condensate chemistry in low-temperature stellar and brown dwarf atmospheres, but more examples are needed to study these objects as a population as well as to define a rigorous classification scheme.Comment: 11 pages, 3 figures, accepted for publication ApJ Letters, v. 614 October 200

    The Schizophrenic Spectrum of LSR 1610-0040: a Peculiar M Dwarf/Subdwarf

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    We present a moderate resolution (R=2000), 0.8-4.1 micron spectrum of LSR 1610-0040, a high proper motion star classified as an early-type L subdwarf by Lepine and collaborators based on its red-optical spectrum. The near-infrared spectrum of LSR 1610-0040 does not fit into the (tentative) M/L subdwarf sequence but rather exhibits a mix of characteristics found in the spectra of both M dwarfs and M subdwarfs. In particular, the near-infrared spectrum exhibits a Na I doublet and CO overtone bandheads in the K band, and Al I and K I lines and an FeH bandhead in the H band, all of which have strengths more typical of field M dwarfs. Furthermore the spectrum of Gl 406 (M6 V) provides a reasonably good match to the 0.6-4.1 micron spectral energy distribution of LSR 1610. Nevertheless the near-infrared spectrum of LSR 1610 also exhibits features common to the spectra of M subdwarfs including a strong Ti I multiplet centered at ~0.97 microns, a weak VO band at ~1.06 microns, and possible collision-induced H_2 absorption in the H and K bands. We discuss a number of possible explanations for the appearance of the red-optical and near-infrared spectrum of LSR 1610-0040. Although we are unable to definitively classify LSR 1610-0040, the preponderance of evidence suggests that it is a mildly metal-poor M dwarf. Finally, we tentatively identify a new band of TiO at ~0.93 microns in the spectra of M dwarfs.Comment: Accepted for publication in the Astronomical Journa

    The Inner Galaxy resolved at IJK using DENIS data

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    We present the analysis of three colour optical/near-infrared images, in IJK, taken for the DENIS project. The region considered covers 17.4 square deg and lies within |l|<5 deg, |b|<1.5 deg. The adopted methods for deriving photometry and astrometry in these crowded images, together with an analysis of the deficiencies nevertheless remaining, are presented. The numbers of objects extracted in I,J and K are 748000, 851000 and 659000 respectively, to magnitude limits of 17,15 and 13. 80% completeness levels typically fall at magnitudes 16, 13 and 10 respectively, fainter by about 2 magnitudes than the usual DENIS limits due to the crowded nature of these fields. A simple model to describe the disk contribution to the number counts is constructed, and parameters for the dust layer derived. We find that a formal fit of parameters for the dust plane, from these data in limited directions, gives a scalelength and scaleheight of 3.4+-1.0 kpc and 40+-5 pc respectively, and a solar position 14.0+-2.5 pc below the plane. This latter value is likely to be affected by localised dust asymmetries. We convolve a detailed model of the systematic and random errors in the photometry with a simple model of the Galactic disk and dust distribution, to simulate expected colour-magnitude diagrams. These are in good agreement with the observed diagrams, allowing us to isolate those stars from the inner disk and bulge. After correcting for local dust-induced asymmetries, we find evidence for longitude-dependent asymmetries in the distant J and K sources, consistent with the general predictions of some Galactic bar models. We consider complementary L-band observations in a second paper.Comment: 14 pages, 33 figures, LaTeX, MNRAS accepte

    The 2MASS Wide-Field T Dwarf Search. II. Discovery of Three T Dwarfs in the Southern Hemisphere

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    We present the discovery of three new Southern Hemisphere T dwarfs identified in the Two Micron All Sky Survey. These objects, 2MASS 0348-6022, 2MASS 0516-0445, and 2MASS 2228-4310, have classifications T7, T5.5, and T6.5, respectively. Using linear absolute magnitude/spectral type relations derived from T dwarfs with measured parallaxes, we estimate spectrophotometric distances for these discoveries; the closest, 2MASS 0348-6022, is likely within 10 pc of the Sun. Proper motions and estimated tangential velocities are consistent with membership in the Galactic disk population. We also list Southern Hemisphere T dwarf candidates that were either not found in subsequent near-infrared imaging observations and are most likely uncatalogued minor planets, or have near-infrared spectra consistent with background stars.Comment: 12 pages including 4 figures (one as jpeg), accepted to A

    Photometric Properties of Long-period Variables in the Large Magellanic Cloud

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    Approximately four thousand light curves of red variable stars in the LMC were selected from the 2.3-years duration MOA database by a period analysis using the Phase Dispersion Minimization method. Their optical features (amplitudes, periodicities, position in CMD) were investigated. Stars with large amplitues and high periodicities were distributed on the only one strip amongst multiple structure on the LMC period-luminosity relation. In the CMD, the five strips were located in the order of the period. The stars with characterized light curves were also discussed.Comment: 8 pages, 5 figures, Proceeding of WS on Mass-Losing Pulsating Stars and Their Circumstellar Matter, Sendai, Japa

    Star Formation via the Little Guy: A Bayesian Study of Ultracool Dwarf Imaging Surveys for Companions

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    I have undertaken a comprehensive statistical investigation of the ultracool dwarf companion distribution (spectral type M6 and later). Utilizing a Bayesian algorithm, I tested models of the companion distribution against data from an extensive set of space and ground-based imaging observations of nearby ultracool dwarfs. My main conclusions are fivefold: 1) Confirm that the concentration of high mass ratio ultracool binary systems is a fundamental feature of the companion distribution, not an observational or selection bias; 2) Determine that the wide (>~20 AU) binary frequency can be no more the 1-2%; 3) Show that the decreasing binary frequency with later spectral types is a real trend; 4) Demonstrate that a large population of currently undetected low mass ratio systems are not consistent with the current data; 5) Find that the population of spectroscopic binaries must be be at least 30% that of currently known ultracool binaries. The best fit value for the overall M6 and later binary frequency is ~20%-22%, of which only ~6% consists of currently undetected companions with separations less than 1 AU. If this is correct, then the upper limit of the ultracool binary population discovered to date is ~75%. I find that the numerical simulation results of the ejection formation method are inconsistent with the outcome of this analysis. However, dynamics do seem to play an important role as simulations of small-N clusters and triple system decays produce results similar to those of this work. The observational efforts required to improve these constraints are shown to be primarily large spectroscopic binary surveys and improved high-resolution imaging techniques.Comment: 42 pages, 17 figures, to be published in October 2007 Ap

    Discovery of an M9.5 Candidate Brown Dwarf in the TW Hydrae Association - DENIS J124514.1-442907

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    We report the discovery of a fifth candidate substellar system in the ~5-10 Myr TW Hydrae Association - DENIS J124514.1-442907. This object has a NIR spectrum remarkably similar to that of 2MASS J1139511-315921, a known TW Hydrae brown dwarf, with low surface gravity features such as a triangular-shaped H-band, deep H2O absorption, weak alkali lines, and weak hydride bands. We find an optical spectral type of M9.5 and estimate a mass of <24 M_Jup, assuming an age of ~5-10 Myr. While the measured proper motion for DENIS J124514.1-442907 is inconclusive as a test for membership, its position in the sky is coincident with the TW Hydrae Association. A more accurate proper motion measurement, higher resolution spectroscopy for radial velocity, and a parallax measurement are needed to derive the true space motion and to confirm its membership.Comment: 8 pages - emulateapj style, 2 figures, 3 tables. Accepted to ApJL. Fixed typos, added reference, added footnot
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