115 research outputs found

    Analysis of Different Containment Models for IRIS Small Break LOCA, using GOTHIC and RELAP5 Codes

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    Advanced nuclear water reactors rely on containment behaviour in realization of some of their passive safety functions. Steam condensation on containment walls, where non-condensable gas effects are significant, is an important feature of the new passive containment concepts, like the AP600/1000 ones. In this work IRIS reactor was taken as reference, and the relevant condensation phenomena involved within its containment were investigated with different computational tools. In particular, IRIS containment response to a Small Break LOCA (SBLOCA) was calculated with GOTHIC and RELAP5 codes. IRIS containment drywell was modelled with RELAP according to a sliced approach, based on the two-pipe-with-junction concept, while it was simulated with GOTHIC testing several modelling options, regarding both heat transfer correlations and volume and thermal structure nodalization. The influence on containment behaviour prediction was investigated in terms of drywell temperature and pressure response, Heat Transfer Coefficient (HTC) and steam volume fraction distribution, and internal recirculating mass flowrate. The objective of the paper is to compare the capability of the two codes in modelling of the same postulated accident, thus to check the results obtained with RELAP5, when applied in a situation not covered by its validation matrix. The option to include or not droplets in fluid mass flow discharged to the containment was the most influencing parameter for GOTHIC simulations. Despite some drawbacks, due e.g. to a marked overestimation of internal natural recirculation, RELAP confirmed its capability to satisfactorily model the IRIS containment

    The Birth of Endowiki, An Italian Online Platform For Continuous Medical Education in Endocrinology

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    Background Conventional tools for medical education are burdened by many drawbacks. Textbooks become rapidly outdated, meeting attendance is expensive, and results reported in journals are not easily suitable for clinical practice. Uptodate and Endotext are excellent online tools, but they have been developed for a clinical context far different from that of our country. Methodology Italian Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AME) charged a task force aiming to develop an educational tool specifically tailored for Italian clinical endocrinologists. Required characteristics were clinical approach, modularity, continuous updating, full online availability (even by mobile devices), open sections and sections for registered members only, opportunity for individualization, indexing and search engine to facilitate browsing. Starting from an open-source platform, Joomla, several changes were implemented. Results Three editors, 2 central editorial secretaries, 30 section coordinators and over 350 authors have been involved in the writing of 21 different sections covering all fields of endocrine and metabolic diseases. The access to Endowiki is free for AME members and is fully open in sections for patients. All readers are requested to serve as referee, pointing to mistakes and need for revision. The system is attended daily by a mean of 250 individuals. Conclusions Endowiki stands alone as an opportunity for medical education in Italy. The big challenges will be the continuous updating and the link to the national certified system for CME

    Ultrasound-guided laser ablation for local control of neck recurrences of medullary thyroid cancer. A feasibility study.

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    Surgery is the standard treatment for cervical metastases of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) diagnosed after initial surgical treatment. Repeated neck dissections, however, carry an elevated risk of complications, have an adverse impact on the quality of life, and sometimes do not achieve cure of the disease Clinical case: In a patient who had undergone two cervical neck dissections complicated by accessory nerve injury, an US-guided laser ablation (LA) of a lymph node metastasis of MTC was performed. LA was performed with two treatments during a five month period. The procedure was carried out with one optical fiber and an energy delivery of 3300 and 360 Joules. Treatments were well tolerated and resulted in complete structural and biochemical cure during a 12 month follow-up. No major complication was registered.LA is a promising tool for the management of relapsing cervical metastases that are localized in non- critical areas and are characterized by low progression rate. Advantages of LA are the outpatient setting, the absence of general anesthesia, the tolerability and the safety of the procedure. Thus, LA may be considered as an alternative approach to surgery or active surveillance for the management of local recurrences of MTC in selected patients
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