163 research outputs found

    Molecular diversity of the Metarhizium anisopliae lineage in an agricultural field

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    Entomopathogenic fungal isolates identified by morphology as Metarhizium anisopliae may belong to different species when identified by molecular characters. We isolated Metarhizium spp. from an experimental agricultural field under both conventional and organic farming regimes using Tenebrio molitor as bait insect to assess the molecular diversity within the soil. Isolates were analyzed using DNA sequencing and applying SSR markers. Within the former M. anisopliae lineage, we found M. brunneum (86.3%), M. robertsii (11.3%) and M. majus (3.4%) in the soil samples. Several genotypes of each species were identified based on SSR markers. Differences in abundance of the species and their genotypes suggest different adaptations to the soil environment of the agricultural field. There were no effects of conventinal or organic farming regimes on diversity of the fungi

    Les noms propres dans les chants de louanges du Mandingue

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    Mémoire numérisé par la Direction des bibliothèques de l'Université de Montréal

    Assessing potential hybridization between a hypothetical gene drive-modified Drosophila suzukii and nontarget Drosophila species.

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    Genetically engineered gene drives (geGD) are potentially powerful tools for suppressing or even eradicating populations of pest insects. Before living geGD insects can be released into the environment, they must pass an environmental risk assessment to ensure that their release will not cause unacceptable harm to non-targeted entities of the environment. A key research question concerns the likelihood that nontarget species will acquire the functional GD elements; such acquisition could lead to reduced abundance or loss of those species and to a disruption of the ecosystem services they provide. The main route for gene flow is through hybridization between the geGD insect strain and closely related species that co-occur in the area of release and its expected dispersal. Using the invasive spotted-wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii, as a case study, we provide a generally applicable strategy on how a combination of interspecific hybridization experiments, behavioral observations, and molecular genetic analyses can be used to assess the potential for hybridization

    Preventive application of an entomopathogenic fungus in cover crops for wireworm control

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    Efficacy of the Metarhizium brunneum Petch (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) strain ART2825 for control of wireworms (Agriotes obscurus (L.), Coleoptera: Elateridae) was examined in a semi-field pot experiment. Pots were treated in late summer during sowing of spring oat as a cover crop. Survival of wireworms was assessed four weeks after their release in October 2013, and 30 weeks after release in April 2014. Viability and persistence of the fungus was determined by counting colony forming units from substrate samples and microsatellite analyses of recovered Metarhizium isolates. The number of colonies detected in the substrate in October 2013 increased with increasing concentrations of applied conidia, and no significant reduction was observed at the second evaluation date in April 2014. Increasing conidia application rates significantly increased mycosis and reduced wireworm survival, to a level comparable to that of treatment using insecticide-coated oat seeds. The preventive application of M. brunneum conidia to reduce wireworm populations in cover crops, preceding a damage-sensitive crop like potatoes, may be a promising biocontrol strategy

    Entwicklung eines generischen Gemeindereferenzprozess-modells in Anlehnung an das ARIS-Modell

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    Die durchgängige Einführung von E-Government geht im Gegensatz zum Thema E- Business in der Privatwirtschaft eher beschaulich voran. Dies hängt u.a. auch damit zusammen, dass an der Schnittstelle von Verwaltung und IT noch größerer Entwicklungsbedarf ersichtlich ist. Konzeptionell ist dazu noch einige Grundlagenarbeit zu leisten, bis hier mehr Konsistenz in eine Verwaltungseinheits-übergreifende Entwicklung entsteht, sodass sich Interoperabilität zu einem durchgängig umgesetzten Prinzip etabliert. Dieser Beitrag schildert ein integriertes Konzept aus Sicht von Gemeindeverwaltungen, das aber auf allen föderalen Ebenen umgesetzt werden kann. Das Konzept dient der Abbildung von Geschäftsprozessen und den damit verbundenen Aspekten wie Formulare, Informationen, Leistungen, Aufgaben-, Kompetenzund Veranwortungs-Zuordnungen sowie Organisationsund Governance-Aspekten. Als Grundlage dazu dient das für das vorliegende Vorhaben adaptierte ARIS-Modell. In einem iterativen Vorgehen ist das Modell mit Gemeindemitarbeitenden auf die Bedürfnisse einer Gemeinde angepasst worden. Die vorliegende Prozesslandkarte ist in die Bereiche Governance-, Führungs-, Kernund Unterstützungsaufgaben gegliedert. Differenziert werden die folgenden Sichten auf Prozessebene: Eigentliche Prozesssicht, Organisationssicht mit Aufgaben, Verantwortungen und Zuständigkeiten, Informationssicht mit Formularen, Dokumenten und relevanten Gesetzen, Sicht auf Kontrollflüsse, Gateways und Geschäftsregeln sowie die Sicht auf die vom Prozessablauf betroffenen IT-Systeme

    A Robust and Sensitive Synthetic Sensor to Monitor the Transcriptional Output of the Cytokinin Signaling Network in Planta

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    Cytokinins are classic plant hormones that orchestrate plant growth, development, and physiology. They affect gene expression in target cells by activating a multistep phosphorelay network. Type-B response regulators, acting as transcriptional activators, mediate the final step in the signaling cascade. Previously, we have introduced a synthetic reporter, Two Component signaling Sensor (TCS)::green fluorescent protein (GFP), which reflects the transcriptional activity of type-B response regulators. TCS::GFP was instrumental in uncovering roles of cytokinin and deepening our understanding of existing functions. However, TCS-mediated expression of reporters is weak in some developmental contexts where cytokinin signaling has a documented role, such as in the shoot apical meristem or in the vasculature of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). We also observed that GFP expression becomes rapidly silenced in TCS::GFP transgenic plants. Here, we present an improved version of the reporter, TCS new (TCSn), which, compared with TCS, is more sensitive to phosphorelay signaling in Arabidopsis and maize (Zea mays) cellular assays while retaining its specificity. Transgenic Arabidopsis TCSn::GFP plants exhibit strong and dynamic GFP expression patterns consistent with known cytokinin functions. In addition, GFP expression has been stable over generations, allowing for crosses with different genetic backgrounds. Thus, TCSn represents a significant improvement to report the transcriptional output profile of phosphorelay signaling networks in Arabidopsis, maize, and likely other plants that display common response regulator DNA-binding specificities

    Virulence of in vivo and in vitro produced conidia of Metarhizium brunneum strains for control of wireworms

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    Wireworms are the soil inhabiting larvae of click beetles and can cause severe damage to arable crops such as potatoes (Solanum tuberosum, L.). Several strains of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum (Petch) are pathogenic to wireworms. In this study, three European strains of M. brunneum were tested in the laboratory against the most damaging wireworm species in Europe, Agriotes lineatus (L.), Agriotes obscurus (L.) and Agriotes sputator (L.). A Swiss strain, isolated from an A. obscurus cadaver, proved to be most effective, killing up to 73% of A. lineatus and 83% A. obscurus individuals, respectively. The median lethal time (LT50) was 21 days post inoculation (dpi) for A. lineatus and 14 dpi for A. obscurus. The strain did not lose virulence through subsequent cultivation on artificial medium and thus seems to be suitable for mass production as a biocontrol agent for wireworm control

    Insights to plant–microbe interactions provide opportunities to improve resistance breeding against root diseases in grain legumes

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    Root and foot diseases severely impede grain legume cultivation worldwide. Breeding lines with resistance against individual pathogens exist, but these resistances are often overcome by the interaction of multiple pathogens in field situations. Novel tools allow to decipher plant–microbiome interactions in unprecedented detail and provide insights into resistance mechanisms that consider both simultaneous attacks of various pathogens and the interplay with beneficial microbes. Although it has become clear that plant‐associated microbes play a key role in plant health, a systematic picture of how and to what extent plants can shape their own detrimental or beneficial microbiome remains to be drawn. There is increasing evidence for the existence of genetic variation in the regulation of plant–microbe interactions that can be exploited by plant breeders. We propose to consider the entire plant holobiont in resistance breeding strategies in order to unravel hidden parts of complex defence mechanisms. This review summarizes (a) the current knowledge of resistance against soil‐borne pathogens in grain legumes, (b) evidence for genetic variation for rhizosphere‐related traits, (c) the role of root exudation in microbe‐mediated disease resistance and elaborates (d) how these traits can be incorporated in resistance breeding programmes

    Temporal metabolic profiling of theQuercus suber-Phytophthora cinnamomisystem by middle-infrared spectroscopy

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    The oomycete Phytophthora cinnamomi is an aggressive plant pathogen, detrimental to many ecosystems including cork oak (Quercus suber) stands, and can inflict great losses in one of the greatest ‘hotspots’ for biodiversity in the world. Here, we applied Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics to disclose the metabolic patterns of cork oak roots and P. cinnamomi mycelium during the early hours of the interaction. As early as 2 h post-inoculation (hpi), cork oak roots showed altered metabolic patterns with significant variations for regions associated with carbohydrate, glycoconjugate and lipid groups when compared to mockinoculated plants. These variations were further extended at 8 hpi. Surprisingly, at 16 hpi, the metabolic changes in inoculated and mock-inoculated plants were similar, and at 24 hpi, the metabolic patterns of the regions mentioned above were inverted when compared to samples collected at 8 hpi. Principal component analysis of the FT-IR spectra confirmed that the metabolic patterns of inoculated cork oak roots could be readily distinguished from those of mock-inoculated plants at 2, 8 and 24 hpi, but not at 16 hpi. FT-IR spectral analysis from mycelium of P. cinnamomi exposed to cork oak root exudates revealed contrasting variations for regions associated with protein groups at 16 and 24 h post-exposure (hpe), whereas carbohydrate and glycoconjugate groups varied mainly at 24 hpe. Our results revealed early alterations in the metabolic patterns of the host plant when interacting with the biotrophic pathogen. In addition, the FTIR technique can be successfully applied to discriminate infected cork oak plants from mock-inoculated plants, although these differences were dynamic with time. To a lesser extent, the metabolic patterns of P. cinnamomi were also altered when exposed to cork oak root exudates
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