26 research outputs found

    Letter to J. Lamar Woodard regarding SEAALL membership dues, July 6, 1976

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    A letter from A. Ferdinand Engel to J. Lamar Woodard regarding the SEAALL membership renewal for the Tennessee State Library & Archives

    Maternal depressive symptoms, and not anxiety symptoms, are associated with positive mother–child reporting discrepancies of internalizing problems in children: a report on the TRAILS Study

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    Maternal internalizing problems affect reporting of child’s problem behavior. This study addresses the relative effects of maternal depressive symptoms versus anxiety symptoms and the association with differential reporting of mother and child on child’s internalizing problems. The study sample comprised a cohort of 1,986 10- to 12-year-old children and their mothers from the Dutch general population in a cross sectional setup. Children’s internalizing problems were assessed with the DSM-IV anxiety and affective problem scales of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Youth Self-Report (YSR). Current maternal internalizing problems were assessed with the depressive and anxiety symptom scales of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS), while the TRAILS Family History Interview (FHI) measured lifetime maternal depression and anxiety. Results show that current and lifetime maternal depressive symptoms were associated with positive mother–child reporting discrepancies (i.e. mothers reporting more problems than their child). Considering the small amount of variance explained, we conclude that maternal depressive symptoms do not bias maternal reporting on child’s internalizing problems to a serious degree. Studies concerning long term consequences of mother–child reporting discrepancies on child’s internalizing problems are few, but show a risk for adverse outcome. More prognostic research is needed

    Understanding effect size: an international online survey among psychiatrists, psychologists, physicians from other medical specialities, dentists and other health professionals

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    Background and objective Various ways exist to display the effectiveness of medical treatment options. This study examined various psychiatric, medical and allied professionals’ understanding and perceived usefulness of eight effect size indices for presenting both dichotomous and continuous outcome data.Methods We surveyed 1316 participants from 13 countries using an online questionnaire. We presented hypothetical treatment effects of interventions versus placebo concerning chronic pain using eight different effect size measures. For each index, the participants had to judge the magnitude of the shown effect, to indicate how certain they felt about their own answer and how useful they found the given effect size index.Findings Overall, 762 (57.9%) participants fully completed the questionnaire. In terms of understanding, the best results emerged when both the control event rate (CER) and the experimental event rate (EER) were presented. The difference in minimal importance difference units (MID unit) was understood worst. Respondents also found CER and EER to be the most useful presentation approach while they rated MID unit as the least useful. Confidence in the risk ratio ranked high, even though it was rather poorly understood.Conclusions and clinical implications For dichotomous outcomes, presenting the effects in terms of the CER and EER could lead to the most correct interpretation. Relative measures including the risk ratio must be supplemented with absolute measures such as the CER and EER. Effects on continuous outcomes were better understood through standardised mean differences than mean differences. These can also be supplemented by dichotomised CER and EER