554 research outputs found

    Three-dimensional compositional mapping using multiple energy X-ray computed tomography

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    When a microstructure contains finer details than the X-ray computed tomography (CT) spatial resolution, the conventional techniques based on segmentation become inadequate for separating the materials composing the sample. Data-constrained modeling overcomes this problem using multiple CT data sets acquired with different X-ray beam energies. The volume fractions of the materials contained into a single voxel are then determined by solving a linear system. The ill-conditioned nature of the linear system reflects into a high sensitivity to the noise. An alternative approach to the direct solution of the linear system, based on the iterative application of the Expectation-Maximization algorithm, is here presented. Different noise conditions are investigated for a random-generated single-voxel problem and for a more complex numerical phantom

    Absorption, refraction and scattering retrieval with an edge-illumination-based imaging setup

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    We have recently developed a new method based on edge-illumination for retrieving a three-image representation of the sample. A minimum of three intensity projections are required in order to retrieve the transmission, refraction and ultra-small-angle scattering properties of the sample. Here we show how the method can be adapted for particular cases in which some degree of a priori information about the sample might be available, limiting the number of required projections to two. Moreover, an iterative algorithm to correct for non-ideal optical elements is proposed and tested on numerical simulations, and finally validated on experimental data

    Virtual edge illumination and one dimensional beam tracking for absorption, refraction, and scattering retrieval

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    We propose two different approaches to retrieve x-ray absorption, refraction, and scattering signals using a one dimensional scan and a high resolution detector. The first method can be easily implemented in existing procedures developed for edge illumination to retrieve absorption and refraction signals, giving comparable image quality while reducing exposure time and delivered dose. The second method tracks the variations of the beam intensity profile on the detector through a multi-Gaussian interpolation, allowing the additional retrieval of the scattering signal

    X-ray phase-contrast imaging

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    X-ray imaging is a standard tool for the non-destructive inspection of the internal structure of samples. It finds application in a vast diversity of fields: medicine, biology, many engineering disciplines, palaeontology and earth sciences are just few examples. The fundamental principle underpinning the image formation have remained the same for over a century: the X-rays traversing the sample are subjected to different amount of absorption in different parts of the sample. By means of phase-sensitive techniques it is possible to generate contrast also in relation to the phase shifts imparted by the sample and to extend the capabilities of X-ray imaging to those details that lack enough absorption contrast to be visualised in conventional radiography. A general overview of X-ray phase contrast imaging techniques is presented in this review, along with more recent advances in this fast evolving field and some examples of applications

    Edge-illumination X-ray dark-field imaging for visualising defects in composite structures

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    Low velocity impact can lead to barely visible and difficult to detect damage such as fibre and matrix breakage or delaminations in composite structures. Drop-weight impact damage in a cross-ply carbon fibre laminate plate was characterized using ultrasonic C-scan measurements. This was compared to the results provided by a novel X-ray imaging technique based on the detection of phase effects, which can be implemented with conventional equipment. Three representations of the sample are provided: absorption, differential phase and dark-field. The latter is of particular interest to detect cracks and voids of dimensions that are smaller than the spatial resolution of the imaging system. The ultrasonic C-scan showed a large delamination and additional damage along the fibre directions. The damage along the fibre directions and other small scale defects were detected from the X-ray imaging. As the system is sensitive to phase effects along one direction at a time, the acquisition of an additional scan, rotating the sample 90 degrees around the beam axis, provides information in both fibre directions. These two techniques enable access to a set of complementary information, across different length scales, which can be useful in the characterization of the defects occurring in composite structures

    Reverse projection retrieval in edge illumination x-ray phase contrast computed tomography

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    Edge illumination (EI) x-ray phase contrast computed tomography (CT) can provide three-dimensional distributions of the real and imaginary parts of the complex refractive index (n = 1 d + ib) of the sample. Phase retrieval, i.e. the separation of attenuation and refraction data from projections that contain a combination of both, is a key step in the image reconstruction process. In EI-based x-ray phase contrast CT, this is conventionally performed on the basis of two projections acquired in opposite illumination configurations (i.e. with different positions of the pre-sample mask) at each CT angle. Displacing the pre-sample mask at each projection makes the scan susceptible to motor-induced misalignment and prevents a continuous sample rotation. We present an alternative method for the retrieval of attenuation and refraction data that does not require repositioning the pre-sample mask. The method is based on the reverse projection relation published by Zhu et al. (2010) for grating interferometry-based x-ray phase contrast CT. We use this relation to derive a simplified acquisition strategy that allows acquiring data with a continuous sample rotation, which can reduce scan time when combined with a fast read-out detector. Besides discussing the theory and the necessary alignment of the experimental setup, we present tomograms obtained with reverse projection retrieval and demonstrate their agreement with those obtained with the conventional EI retrieval

    Detection of individual sub-pixel features in Edge-Illumination X-Ray Phase Contrast Imaging by means of the dark-field channel

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    We report on a direct comparison in the detectability of individual sub-pixel-size features between the three complementary contrast channels provided by edge-illumination x-ray phase contrast imaging at constant exposure time and spatial sampling pitch. The dark-field (or ultra-small-angle x-ray scattering) image is known to provide information on sample micro-structure at length scales that are smaller than the system's spatial resolution, averaged over its length. By using a custom-built groove sample, we show how this can also be exploited to detect individual, isolated features. While these are highlighted in the dark-field image, they remain invisible to the phase and attenuation contrast channels. Finally, we show images of a memory SD card as an indication towards potential applications

    Improved visualization of X-ray phase contrast volumetric data through artifact-free integrated differential images

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    Artifacts arising when differential phase images are integrated is a common problem to several X-ray phase-based experimental techniques. The combination of noise and insufficient sampling of the high-frequency differential phase signal leads to the formation of streak artifacts in the projections, translating into poor image quality in the tomography slices. In this work, we apply a non-iterative integration algorithm proven to reduce streak artifacts in planar (2D) images to a differential phase tomography scan. We report on how the reduction of streak artifacts in the projections improves the quality of the tomography slices, especially in the directions different from the reconstruction plane. Importantly, the method is compatible with large tomography datasets in terms of computation time

    Invasive Crayfish moving Northwards: management challenges and policy implications at the local scale

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    Freshwater ecosystems in Italy, as most European countries, have been severely impacted by the invasion of alien crayfish. The two most widespread species in Trentino (NE Italy) are Procambarus clarkii and Faxionus limosus; for both species, the high elevation and cold climate of most of the Trentino territory represent a climatic barrier to their northwards spread. Procambarus clarkii is present in one small lake at 950 m asl, and Faxionus limosus in a group of 5 lakes at 450 m asl, over an area of about 80km2. the introduction of both species is associated with fish restocking, and lead to the extinction of existing populations of the native stone crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes. The Management Plan of Austropotamobius pallipes in Trentino listed the eradication/containment of these IAS populations among the conservation priorities for the native populations. The eradication campaigns of P. clarkii started in 2018 with a release/recapture campaign aimed at assessing the abundance of the populations, and continued in 2020, 2021, 2022. As a result, the capture efficiency decreased, suggesting a population reduction trend. The containment of Faxionus limosus is more difficult, given its presence in a higher number of lakes, three of which are hydrologically connected. A first containment campaign to prevent its spread in the river network is planned for summer 2023. The financial support to these activities has been granted by the local Nature 2000 networks and by the local administrations, which have also promoted the communication with citizens and stakeholders to raise consensus and collaboratio
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