347 research outputs found

    The physics models of FLUKA: status and recent development

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    A description of the intermediate and high energy hadronic interaction models used in the FLUKA code is given. Benchmarking against experimental data is also reported in order to validate the model performances. Finally the most recent developments and perspectives for nucleus-nucleus interactions are described together with some comparisons with experimental data.Comment: talk from the 2003 Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics (CHEP03), La Jolla, Ca, USA, March 2003, 10 pages, p

    Deep Mapping of Small Solar System Bodies with Galactic Cosmic Ray Secondary Particle Showers

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    We will investigate the use of galactic cosmic ray (GCR) secondary particles to probe the deep interiors of small solar system bodies (SSBs), including comets, asteroids, and geologic structures on the surfaces of airless bodies. Applications include solar system science, planetary defense, and resource utilization. Our Phase I study demonstrated that muons, the long-range charged component of GCR showers, can penetrate SSBs up to a km in diameter, providing information on their interior structure. Muons produced in Earths atmosphere have been applied to image the interior of large objects for science and engineering. In Phase I, we found that the production of muons in the solid surfaces of airless bodies is much smaller than in Earths atmosphere. Nevertheless, the flux of transmitted muons is sufficient to detect inclusions within an asteroid or comet in a reasonable amount of time, ranging from hours to weeks, depending on the size of the SSB and the density contrast, position and size of the inclusion. For asteroids and comets, large density variations (e.g., porous soil or ice versus solid rock) are relatively easy to detect. The intrinsic spatial resolution of muon radiography (muography) is on the scale of a few meters. The spatial resolution that can be achieved in practice depends on signal intensity and integration time (counting statistics), the angular resolution of the muon tracker (hodoscope) and details of data reduction and analysis methodology. Our Phase II project will assess remaining unknowns for the application of muography to determining the interior structure of SSBs, assess risks for implementation, and provide a roadmap for development of SSB muography beyond the NIAC program. To achieve our objectives, we will focus on four interrelated tasks: Task1) Signal and background characterization: Characterize the production and transmission of muons and secondary particle backgrounds made by cosmic ray showers in SSBs; and near-surface features from radiographic and tomographic data; Task2) Imaging studies: Develop methods to determine the density structure of SSB interiors and near-surface features from radiographic and tomographic data; Task3) Instrument design: Using simulations and bench-top laboratory experiments, investigate specific concepts for the design of compact hodoscopes and components; Task4) Synthesis: Combine the results of the first three tasks to determine the range of applicability of the method, identify the steps needed for maturation of the concept, and explore concepts for a pilot muography mission

    The hadronic models for cosmic ray physics: the FLUKA code solutions

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    FLUKA is a general purpose Monte Carlo transport and interaction code used for fundamental physics and for a wide range of applications. These include Cosmic Ray Physics (muons, neutrinos, EAS, underground physics), both for basic research and applied studies in space and atmospheric flight dosimetry and radiation damage. A review of the hadronic models available in FLUKA and relevant for the description of cosmic ray air showers is presented in this paper. Recent updates concerning these models are discussed. The FLUKA capabilities in the simulation of the formation and propagation of EM and hadronic showers in the Earth's atmosphere are shown.Comment: 8 pages, 9 figures. Invited talk presented by M.V. Garzelli at ISVHECRI2006, International Symposium on Very High Energy Cosmic Rays, Weihai, China, August 15 - 22 200

    The application of FLUKA to dosimetry and radiation therapy

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    The FLUKA Monte Carlo code has been evolving over the last several decades and is now widely used for radiation shielding calculations. In order to facilitate the use of FLUKA in dosimetry and therapy applications, supporting software has been developed to allow the direct conversion of the output files from standard CT-scans directly into a voxel geometry for transport within FLUKA. Since the CT-scan information essentially contains only the electron density information over the scanned volume, one needs the specific compositions for each voxel individually. We present here the results of a simple algorithm to assign tissues in the human body to one of four categories: soft-tissue, hard-bone, trabecular-bone and porous-lung. In addition, we explore the problem of the pathlength distributions in porous media such as trabecular bone. A mechanism will be implemented within FLUKA to allow for variable multipal fixed density materials to accommodate the pathlength distributions discovere

    Deep Mapping of Small Solar System Bodies with Galactic Cosmic Ray Secondary Particle Showers

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    Galactic cosmic rays rain steadily from all directions onto asteroids and comets. The interaction of these high-energy ions produces a cascade of secondary particles, including muons, which can penetrate the solid interiors of small solar system bodies. Muons, which are produced in abundance in Earth's atmosphere, have been used to image large structures on Earth, including the Great Pyramids and the interior of volcanoes. In this study, we demonstrate that the transmitted flux of muons is sensitive to the interior density structure of asteroids and comets, less than a few hundred meters in diameter. Muonography has the potential to fill a critical gap in our knowledge of the deep interiors of small bodies, providing information needed for planetary defense, in situ resource utilization, and planetary science. We use Monte Carlo codes (MCNPX and FLUKA), which accurately model galactic cosmic ray showers, to explore systematic variations in the production of muons in solid surfaces. Results of these calculations confirm the scaling of muon production in Earth's atmosphere to solid regolith materials, as predicted by a simple, semi-empirical model. Muons are primarily produced in the top meter of the regoliths of asteroids and comets. Their rate of production is over three orders of magnitude lower than in Earth's atmosphere and depends strongly on regolith density. In practice, the use of muonography to characterize the interiors of small solar system bodies must overcome their low rate of production and their dependence on regolith density, which can vary over the surface of asteroids and comets. We show that interior contrast can be resolved using a muon telescope (hodoscope) with about 1 sq m aperture with integration times ranging from hours to weeks. Design concepts for a practical hodoscope that could be deployed in situ or on an orbiting spacecraft, are described. Regolith density within the top meter of an asteroid can be determined from radar observations. A concept for a pilot mission that combines remote radar measurements with in situ muonography of a near-Earth asteroid is presented. Perceived challenges and next steps for the development of the concept are described

    Snowmass CF1 Summary: WIMP Dark Matter Direct Detection

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    As part of the Snowmass process, the Cosmic Frontier WIMP Direct Detection subgroup (CF1) has drawn on input from the Cosmic Frontier and the broader Particle Physics community to produce this document. The charge to CF1 was (a) to summarize the current status and projected sensitivity of WIMP direct detection experiments worldwide, (b) motivate WIMP dark matter searches over a broad parameter space by examining a spectrum of WIMP models, (c) establish a community consensus on the type of experimental program required to explore that parameter space, and (d) identify the common infrastructure required to practically meet those goals.Comment: Snowmass CF1 Final Summary Report: 47 pages and 28 figures with a 5 page appendix on instrumentation R&
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