21 research outputs found

    GNSS Radio Frequency Interference Monitoring from LEO Satellites: An In-Laboratory Prototype

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    The disruptive effect of radio frequency interference (RFI) on global navigation satellite system (GNSS) signals is well known, and in the last four decades, many have been investigated as countermeasures. Recently, low-Earth orbit (LEO) satellites have been looked at as a good opportunity for GNSS RFI monitoring, and the last five years have seen the proliferation of many commercial and academic initiatives. In this context, this paper proposes a new spaceborne system to detect, classify, and localize terrestrial GNSS RFI signals, particularly jamming and spoofing, for civil use. This paper presents the implementation of the RFI detection software module to be hosted on a nanosatellite. The whole development work is described, including the selection of both the target platform and the algorithms, the implementation, the detection performance evaluation, and the computational load analysis. Two are the implemented RFI detectors: the chi-square goodness-of-fit (GoF) algorithm for non-GNSS-like interference, e.g., chirp jamming, and the snapshot acquisition for GNSS-like interference, e.g., spoofing. Preliminary testing results in the presence of jamming and spoofing signals reveal promising detection capability in terms of sensitivity and highlight room to optimize the computational load, particularly for the snapshot-acquisition-based RFI detector

    Mandibular torus as a new index of success for mandibular advancement devices

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    Background: In obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), treatment with mandibular advancement devices (MADs) reduces patients' Apnoea-Hypopnoea index (AHI) scores and improves their sleepiness and quality of life. MADs are non-invasive alternatives for patients who cannot tolerate traditional continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. The variability of responses to these devices makes it necessary to search for predictors of success. The aim of our study was to evaluate the presence of mandibular torus as a predictor of MAD efficacy in OSA and to identify other potential cephalometric factors that could influence the response to treatment. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study. The study included 103 patients diagnosed of OSA who met the criteria for initiation of treatment with MAD. Structural variables were collected (cephalometric and the presence or absence of mandibular torus). Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the existence of predictive factors for the efficacy of MADs. Results: A total of 103 patients who were consecutively referred for treatment with MAD were included (89.3% men); the mean age of the participants was 46.3 years, and the mean AHI before MAD was 31.4 (SD 16.2) and post- MAD 11.3 (SD 9.2). Thirty-three percent of patients had mandibular torus. Torus was associated with a better response (odds ratio (OR) = 2.854 (p = 0.035)) after adjustment for sex, age, body mass index (BMI; kg/m2), the angle formed by the occlusal plane to the sella?nasion plane (OCC plane to SN), overinjection, and smoking. No cephalometric predictors of efficacy were found that were predictive of MAD treatment success. Conclusions: The presence of a mandibular torus practically triples the probability of MAD success. This is the simplest examination with the greatest benefits in terms of the efficacy of MAD treatment for OSA

    SETBP1 induces transcription of a network of development genes by acting as an epigenetic hub

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    SETBP1 variants occur as somatic mutations in several hematological malignancies such as atypical chronic myeloid leukemia and as de novo germline mutations in the Schinzel-Giedion syndrome. Here we show that SETBP1 binds to gDNA in AT-rich promoter regions, causing activation of gene expression through recruitment of a HCF1/KMT2A/PHF8 epigenetic complex. Deletion of two AT-hooks abrogates the binding of SETBP1 to gDNA and impairs target gene upregulation. Genes controlled by SETBP1 such as MECOM are significantly upregulated in leukemias containing SETBP1 mutations. Gene ontology analysis of deregulated SETBP1 target genes indicates that they are also key controllers of visceral organ development and brain morphogenesis. In line with these findings, in utero brain electroporation of mutated SETBP1 causes impairment of mouse neurogenesis with a profound delay in neuronal migration. In summary, this work unveils a SETBP1 function that directly affects gene transcription and clarifies the mechanism operating in myeloid malignancies and in the Schinzel- Giedion syndrome caused by SETBP1 mutations.Peer reviewe

    Notulae to the Italian native vascular flora: 5.

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    In this contribution, new data concerning the distribution of native vascular flora in Italy are presented. It includes new records and confirmations to the Italian administrative regions for taxa in the genera Allium, Arabis, Campanula, Centaurea, Chaerophyllum, Crocus, Dactylis, Dianthus, Festuca, Galanthus, Helianthemum, Lysimachia, Milium, Pteris, and Quercus. Nomenclature and distribution updates, published elsewhere, and corrections are provided as supplementary material

    Notulae to the Italian alien vascular flora: 12

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    In this contribution, new data concerning the distribution of vascular flora alien to Italy are presented. It includes new records, confirmations, exclusions, and status changes for Italy or for Italian administrative regions. Nomenclatural and distribution updates published elsewhere are provided as Suppl. material 1

    Notulae to the Italian alien vascular flora: 11

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    In this contribution, new data concerning the distribution of vascular flora alien to Italy are presented. It includes new records, confirmations, exclusions, and status changes for Italy or for Italian administrative regions. Nomenclatural and distribution updates published elsewhere are provided as Suppl. material 1

    MedALE RTS campaign: Data analysis and reporting

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    The recently started Mediterranean ATM Live Exercise (MedALE) project among the SESAR Integrated RPAS Demonstration Activities, has the goal to provide to a wide spectrum of European Stakeholders indications and recommendations about the validity and limits of the existing RPAS assets, practices and operational procedure. In addition this project will provide an interesting contribution identifying the future necessary improvements or modifications to comply with the new ATM concepts that SESAR Programme is realizing. The MedALE demonstration programme adopted an incremental and complementary series of steps designed to demonstrate how RPAS may be integrated into non-segregated airspace. A combined approach has been adopted taking into account different levels of complexity and realism: Virtual and Constructive Real Time Simulation (RTS) and Live Trial (LT). RTS have been performed during November 2014 while LT activities are planned in May 2015. This paper is focused on the Real Time simulation exercise that investigated the cooperation between ATC Controllers and RPAS Pilots in non-segregated airspace. In order to represent a real environment, a complex networked infrastructure composed by an integration of several remote simulation platforms was set up. In particular, ENAV ATC simulation system (hosted by NATO M&S CoE) and three RPAS simulator known as SKY-Y Full Mission Simulator (Male UAV), FALCO (Tactical UAV) and C-FLY (Light UAV), provided by Alenia Aermacchi, Selex and Nimbus respectively were linked ad hoc. The Operational Environment selected for the simulation exercise was the Decimomannu (LIED) airport located in Sardinia Island. During simulation campaign three type of scenarios have been considered. (1) Reference Scenario - reproducing the situation without the proposed solution. It means that the scenario didn’t include the implementation of the RPAS. (2) Solution Scenario - represented by Reference Scenario with the introduction of three different types (with different performances) RPAS. This scenario was analyzed in both Line Of Sight (LOS) and Beyond Radio Line Of Sight (BRLOS) configurations. BRLOS scenario use RAPTOR simulation platform developed by Thales Alenia Space Italia, a SATCOM simulator in the loop emulating BRLOS C2 data link communications. (3) Non nominal Scenario - represented by Solution Scenario with the implementation of unusual events represented by RPAS loss of power, General Aviation Traffic (GAT) unusual situations and Loss of R/T Voice communication between RPAS Pilot and ATCO. Making the comparison among these different scenarios interesting results have been obtained in terms of Safety and Human Performance Key Performance Area (KPA) with analysis of several indicators (Workload; Situational Awareness, Usability, Teamwork, Change of practices and procedure). The results collected from validation activities for both ATCOs and RPAS Pilots side, provided important feedback about technologies that support these Stakeholders and gave important elements on integration of RPAS traffic in a real ATM environment

    Digital PCR for high sensitivity viral detection in false-negative SARS-CoV-2 patients

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    Abstract Patients requiring diagnostic testing for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are routinely assessed by reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) amplification of Sars-CoV-2 virus RNA extracted from oro/nasopharyngeal swabs. Despite the good specificity of the assays certified for SARS-CoV-2 molecular detection, and a theoretical sensitivity of few viral gene copies per reaction, a relatively high rate of false negatives continues to be reported. This is an important challenge in the management of patients on hospital admission and for correct monitoring of the infectivity after the acute phase. In the present report, we show that the use of digital PCR, a high sensitivity method to detect low amplicon numbers, allowed us to correctly detecting infection in swab material in a significant number of false negatives. We show that the implementation of digital PCR methods in the diagnostic assessment of COVID-19 could resolve, at least in part, this timely issue

    Tumor-derived prostaglandin E2 promotes p50 NF-ÎşB-dependent differentiation of monocytic MDSC

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    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) include immature monocytic (M-MDSC) and granulocytic (PMN-MDSC) cells that share the ability to suppress adaptive immunity and hinder the effectiveness of anti-cancer treatments. Of note, in response to interferon-γ (IFNγ) M-MDSC release the tumor-promoting and immunosuppressive molecule nitric oxide (NO), whereas macrophages largely express anti-tumor properties. Investigating these opposing activities, we found that tumor-derived prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) induces nuclear accumulation of p50 NF-κB in M-MDSC, diverting their response to IFNγ towards NO-mediated immunosuppression and reducing TNFα expression. At the genome level, p50 NF-κB promoted binding of STAT1 to regulatory regions of selected IFNγ-dependent genes, including inducible nitric oxide synthase (Nos2). In agreement, ablation of p50 as well as pharmacological inhibition of either the PGE2 receptor EP2 or NO production reprogrammed M-MDSC towards a NOS2low/TNFαhigh phenotype, restoring the in vivo antitumor activity of IFNγ. Our results indicate that inhibition of the PGE2/p50/NO axis prevents MDSC suppressive functions and restores the efficacy of anticancer immunotherapy
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