1,060 research outputs found

    Variation in use of surveillance colonoscopy among colorectal cancer survivors in the United States

    Get PDF
    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Clinical practice guidelines recommend colonoscopies at regular intervals for colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors. Using data from a large, multi-regional, population-based cohort, we describe the rate of surveillance colonoscopy and its association with geographic, sociodemographic, clinical, and health services characteristics.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>We studied CRC survivors enrolled in the Cancer Care Outcomes Research and Surveillance (CanCORS) study. Eligible survivors were diagnosed between 2003 and 2005, had curative surgery for CRC, and were alive without recurrences 14 months after surgery with curative intent. Data came from patient interviews and medical record abstraction. We used a multivariate logit model to identify predictors of colonoscopy use.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Despite guidelines recommending surveillance, only 49% of the 1423 eligible survivors received a colonoscopy within 14 months after surgery. We observed large regional differences (38% to 57%) across regions. Survivors who received screening colonoscopy were more likely to: have colon cancer than rectal cancer (OR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.05-1.90); have visited a primary care physician (OR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.14-1.82); and received adjuvant chemotherapy (OR = 1.75, 95% CI: 1.27-2.41). Compared to survivors with no comorbidities, survivors with moderate or severe comorbidities were less likely to receive surveillance colonoscopy (OR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.49-0.98 and OR = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.29-0.66, respectively).</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>Despite guidelines, more than half of CRC survivors did not receive surveillance colonoscopy within 14 months of surgery, with substantial variation by site of care. The association of primary care visits and adjuvant chemotherapy use suggests that access to care following surgery affects cancer surveillance.</p

    Antimicrobial resistance among migrants in Europe: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Get PDF
    BACKGROUND: Rates of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) are rising globally and there is concern that increased migration is contributing to the burden of antibiotic resistance in Europe. However, the effect of migration on the burden of AMR in Europe has not yet been comprehensively examined. Therefore, we did a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify and synthesise data for AMR carriage or infection in migrants to Europe to examine differences in patterns of AMR across migrant groups and in different settings. METHODS: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, and Scopus with no language restrictions from Jan 1, 2000, to Jan 18, 2017, for primary data from observational studies reporting antibacterial resistance in common bacterial pathogens among migrants to 21 European Union-15 and European Economic Area countries. To be eligible for inclusion, studies had to report data on carriage or infection with laboratory-confirmed antibiotic-resistant organisms in migrant populations. We extracted data from eligible studies and assessed quality using piloted, standardised forms. We did not examine drug resistance in tuberculosis and excluded articles solely reporting on this parameter. We also excluded articles in which migrant status was determined by ethnicity, country of birth of participants' parents, or was not defined, and articles in which data were not disaggregated by migrant status. Outcomes were carriage of or infection with antibiotic-resistant organisms. We used random-effects models to calculate the pooled prevalence of each outcome. The study protocol is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42016043681. FINDINGS: We identified 2274 articles, of which 23 observational studies reporting on antibiotic resistance in 2319 migrants were included. The pooled prevalence of any AMR carriage or AMR infection in migrants was 25路4% (95% CI 19路1-31路8; I2 =98%), including meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (7路8%, 4路8-10路7; I2 =92%) and antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (27路2%, 17路6-36路8; I2 =94%). The pooled prevalence of any AMR carriage or infection was higher in refugees and asylum seekers (33路0%, 18路3-47路6; I2 =98%) than in other migrant groups (6路6%, 1路8-11路3; I2 =92%). The pooled prevalence of antibiotic-resistant organisms was slightly higher in high-migrant community settings (33路1%, 11路1-55路1; I2 =96%) than in migrants in hospitals (24路3%, 16路1-32路6; I2 =98%). We did not find evidence of high rates of transmission of AMR from migrant to host populations. INTERPRETATION: Migrants are exposed to conditions favouring the emergence of drug resistance during transit and in host countries in Europe. Increased antibiotic resistance among refugees and asylum seekers and in high-migrant community settings (such as refugee camps and detention facilities) highlights the need for improved living conditions, access to health care, and initiatives to facilitate detection of and appropriate high-quality treatment for antibiotic-resistant infections during transit and in host countries. Protocols for the prevention and control of infection and for antibiotic surveillance need to be integrated in all aspects of health care, which should be accessible for all migrant groups, and should target determinants of AMR before, during, and after migration. FUNDING: UK National Institute for Health Research Imperial Biomedical Research Centre, Imperial College Healthcare Charity, the Wellcome Trust, and UK National Institute for Health Research Health Protection Research Unit in Healthcare-associated Infections and Antimictobial Resistance at Imperial College London

    Activation of Thiazide-Sensitive Co-Transport by Angiotensin II in the cyp1a1-Ren2 Hypertensive Rat

    Get PDF
    Transgenic rats with inducible expression of the mouse Ren2 gene were used to elucidate mechanisms leading to the development of hypertension and renal injury. Ren2 transgene activation was induced by administration of a naturally occurring aryl hydrocarbon, indole-3-carbinol (100 mg/kg/day by gastric gavage). Blood pressure and renal parameters were recorded in both conscious and anesthetized (butabarbital sodium; 120 mg/kg IP) rats at selected time-points during the development of hypertension. Hypertension was evident by the second day of treatment, being preceded by reduced renal sodium excretion due to activation of the thiazide-sensitive sodium-chloride co-transporter. Renal injury was evident after the first day of transgene induction, being initially limited to the pre-glomerular vasculature. Mircoalbuminuria and tubuloinsterstitial injury developed once hypertension was established. Chronic treatment with either hydrochlorothiazide or an AT1 receptor antagonist normalized sodium reabsorption, significantly blunted hypertension and prevented renal injury. Urinary aldosterone excretion was increased 鈭20 fold, but chronic mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism with spironolactone neither restored natriuretic capacity nor prevented hypertension. Spironolactone nevertheless ameliorated vascular damage and prevented albuminuria. This study finds activation of sodium-chloride co-transport to be a key mechanism in angiotensin II-dependent hypertension. Furthermore, renal vascular injury in this setting reflects both barotrauma and pressure-independent pathways associated with direct detrimental effects of angiotensin II and aldosterone

    Clinical outcomes and patient-matched molecular composition of relapsed medulloblastoma

    Get PDF
    漏 2021 by American Society of Clinical Oncology. Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives 4.0 License: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/Purpose: We sought to investigate clinical outcomes of relapsed medulloblastoma and to compare molecular features between patient-matched diagnostic and relapsed tumors. Methods: Children and infants enrolled on either SJMB03 (NCT00085202) or SJYC07 (NCT00602667) trials who experienced medulloblastoma relapse were analyzed for clinical outcomes, including anatomic and temporal patterns of relapse and postrelapse survival. A largely independent, paired molecular cohort was analyzed by DNA methylation array and next-generation sequencing. Results: A total of 72 of 329 (22%) SJMB03 and 52 of 79 (66%) SJYC07 patients experienced relapse with significant representation of Group 3 and wingless tumors. Although most patients exhibited some distal disease (79%), 38% of patients with sonic hedgehog tumors experienced isolated local relapse. Time to relapse and postrelapse survival varied by molecular subgroup with longer latencies for patients with Group 4 tumors. Postrelapse radiation therapy among previously nonirradiated SJYC07 patients was associated with long-term survival. Reirradiation was only temporizing for SJMB03 patients. Among 127 patients with patient-matched tumor pairs, 9 (7%) experienced subsequent nonmedulloblastoma CNS malignancies. Subgroup (96%) and subtype (80%) stabilities were largely maintained among the remainder. Rare subgroup divergence was observed from Group 4 to Group 3 tumors, which is coincident with genetic alterations involving MYC, MYCN, and FBXW7. Subgroup-specific patterns of alteration were identified for driver genes and chromosome arms. Conclusion: Clinical behavior of relapsed medulloblastoma must be contextualized in terms of up-front therapies and molecular classifications. Group 4 tumors exhibit slower biological progression. Utility of radiation at relapse is dependent on patient age and prior treatments. Degree and patterns of molecular conservation at relapse vary by subgroup. Relapse tissue enables verification of molecular targets and identification of occult secondary malignancies.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    SNAPSHOT USA 2019 : a coordinated national camera trap survey of the United States

    Get PDF
    This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.With the accelerating pace of global change, it is imperative that we obtain rapid inventories of the status and distribution of wildlife for ecological inferences and conservation planning. To address this challenge, we launched the SNAPSHOT USA project, a collaborative survey of terrestrial wildlife populations using camera traps across the United States. For our first annual survey, we compiled data across all 50 states during a 14-week period (17 August - 24 November of 2019). We sampled wildlife at 1509 camera trap sites from 110 camera trap arrays covering 12 different ecoregions across four development zones. This effort resulted in 166,036 unique detections of 83 species of mammals and 17 species of birds. All images were processed through the Smithsonian's eMammal camera trap data repository and included an expert review phase to ensure taxonomic accuracy of data, resulting in each picture being reviewed at least twice. The results represent a timely and standardized camera trap survey of the USA. All of the 2019 survey data are made available herein. We are currently repeating surveys in fall 2020, opening up the opportunity to other institutions and cooperators to expand coverage of all the urban-wild gradients and ecophysiographic regions of the country. Future data will be available as the database is updated at eMammal.si.edu/snapshot-usa, as well as future data paper submissions. These data will be useful for local and macroecological research including the examination of community assembly, effects of environmental and anthropogenic landscape variables, effects of fragmentation and extinction debt dynamics, as well as species-specific population dynamics and conservation action plans. There are no copyright restrictions; please cite this paper when using the data for publication.Publisher PDFPeer reviewe

    Albiglutide and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (Harmony Outcomes): a double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial

    Get PDF
    Background: Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists differ in chemical structure, duration of action, and in their effects on clinical outcomes. The cardiovascular effects of once-weekly albiglutide in type 2 diabetes are unknown. We aimed to determine the safety and efficacy of albiglutide in preventing cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. Methods: We did a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial in 610 sites across 28 countries. We randomly assigned patients aged 40 years and older with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (at a 1:1 ratio) to groups that either received a subcutaneous injection of albiglutide (30鈥50 mg, based on glycaemic response and tolerability) or of a matched volume of placebo once a week, in addition to their standard care. Investigators used an interactive voice or web response system to obtain treatment assignment, and patients and all study investigators were masked to their treatment allocation. We hypothesised that albiglutide would be non-inferior to placebo for the primary outcome of the first occurrence of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke, which was assessed in the intention-to-treat population. If non-inferiority was confirmed by an upper limit of the 95% CI for a hazard ratio of less than 1路30, closed testing for superiority was prespecified. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02465515. Findings: Patients were screened between July 1, 2015, and Nov 24, 2016. 10鈥793 patients were screened and 9463 participants were enrolled and randomly assigned to groups: 4731 patients were assigned to receive albiglutide and 4732 patients to receive placebo. On Nov 8, 2017, it was determined that 611 primary endpoints and a median follow-up of at least 1路5 years had accrued, and participants returned for a final visit and discontinuation from study treatment; the last patient visit was on March 12, 2018. These 9463 patients, the intention-to-treat population, were evaluated for a median duration of 1路6 years and were assessed for the primary outcome. The primary composite outcome occurred in 338 (7%) of 4731 patients at an incidence rate of 4路6 events per 100 person-years in the albiglutide group and in 428 (9%) of 4732 patients at an incidence rate of 5路9 events per 100 person-years in the placebo group (hazard ratio 0路78, 95% CI 0路68鈥0路90), which indicated that albiglutide was superior to placebo (p&lt;0路0001 for non-inferiority; p=0路0006 for superiority). The incidence of acute pancreatitis (ten patients in the albiglutide group and seven patients in the placebo group), pancreatic cancer (six patients in the albiglutide group and five patients in the placebo group), medullary thyroid carcinoma (zero patients in both groups), and other serious adverse events did not differ between the two groups. There were three (&lt;1%) deaths in the placebo group that were assessed by investigators, who were masked to study drug assignment, to be treatment-related and two (&lt;1%) deaths in the albiglutide group. Interpretation: In patients with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, albiglutide was superior to placebo with respect to major adverse cardiovascular events. Evidence-based glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists should therefore be considered as part of a comprehensive strategy to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes. Funding: GlaxoSmithKline

    Differential cross section measurements for the production of a W boson in association with jets in proton鈥損roton collisions at 鈭歴 = 7 TeV