32,475 research outputs found

    Trigger and data acquisition

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    The lectures address some of the issues of triggering and data acquisition in large high-energy physics experiments. Emphasis is placed on hadron-collider experiments that present a particularly challenging environment for event selection and data collection. However, the lectures also explain how T/DAQ systems have evolved over the years to meet new challenges. Some examples are given from early experience with LHC T/DAQ systems during the 2008 single-beam operations.Comment: 32 pages, Lectures given at the 5th CERN-Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics, Recinto Quirama, Colombia, 15 - 28 Mar 200

    High-Energy QCD as a Topological Field Theory

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    We propose an identification of the conformal field theory underlying Lipatov's spin-chain model of high-energy scattering in perturbative QCD. It is a twisted N=2 supersymmetric topological field theory, which arises as the limiting case of the SL(2,R)/U(1) non-linear sigma model that also plays a role in describing the Quantum Hall effect and black holes in string theory. The doubly-infinite set of non-trivial integrals of motion of the high-energy spin-chain model displayed by Faddeev and Korchemsky are identified as the Cartan subalgebra of a W_{\infty} \otimes W_{\infty} bosonic sub-symmetry possessed by this topological theory. The renormalization group and an analysis of instanton perturbations yield some understanding why this particular topological spin-chain model emerges in the high-energy limit, and provide a new estimate of the asymptotic behaviour of multi-Reggeized-gluon exchange.Comment: 24 pages LATEX, one eps figure incorporate

    Could a nearby supernova explosion have caused a mass extinction?

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    We examine the possibility that a nearby supernova explosion could have caused one or more of the mass extinctions identified by palaeontologists. We discuss the likely rate of such events in the light of the recent identification of Geminga as a supernova remnant less than 100 pc away and the discovery of a millisecond pulsar about 150 pc away, and observations of SN 1987A. The fluxes of Îł\gamma radiation and charged cosmic rays on the Earth are estimated, and their effects on the Earth's ozone layer discussed. A supernova explosion of the order of 10 pc away could be expected every few hundred million years, and could destroy the ozone layer for hundreds of years, letting in potentially lethal solar ultraviolet radiation. In addition to effects on land ecology, this could entail mass destruction of plankton and reef communities, with disastrous consequences for marine life as well. A supernova extinction should be distinguishable from a meteorite impact such as the one that presumably killed the dinosaurs.Comment: 10 pages, CERN-TH.6805/9

    Some Physical Aspects of Liouville String Dynamics

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    We discuss some physical aspects of our Liouville approach to non-critical strings, including the emergence of a microscopic arrow of time, effective field theories as classical ``pointer'' states in theory space, CPTCPT violation and the possible apparent non-conservation of angular momentum. We also review the application of a phenomenological parametrization of this formalism to the neutral kaon system.Comment: CERN-TH.7269/94, 37 pages, 2 figures (not included), latex. Direct inquiries to: [email protected]

    A Liouville String Approach to Microscopic Time and Cosmology

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    In the non-critical string framework that we have proposed recently, the time tt is identified with a dynamical local renormalization group scale, the Liouville mode, and behaves as a statistical evolution parameter, flowing irreversibly from an infrared fixed point - which we conjecture to be a topological string phase - to an ultraviolet one - which corresponds to a static critical string vacuum. When applied to a toy two-dimensional model of space-time singularities, this formalism yields an apparent renormalization of the velocity of light, and a tt-dependent form of the uncertainty relation for position and momentum of a test string. We speculate within this framework on a stringy alternative to conventional field-theoretical inflation, and the decay towards zero of the cosmological constant in a maximally-symmetric space.Comment: Latex 23 pages, no figures, CERN-TH.7000/93, CTP-TAMU-66/9

    High-temperature constitutive modeling

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    Thermomechanical service conditions for high-temperature levels, thermal transients, and mechanical loads severe enough to cause measurable inelastic deformation are studied. Structural analysis in support of the design of high-temperature components depends strongly on accurate mathematical representations of the nonlinear, hereditary, inelastic behavior of structural alloys at high temperature, particularly in the relatively small strain range. Progress is discussed in the following areas: multiaxial experimentation to provide a basis for high-temperature multiaxial constitutive relationships; nonisothermal testing and theoretical development toward a complete thermomechanically path dependent formulation of viscoplasticity; and development of viscoplastic constitutive model accounting for initial anisotropy
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