226 research outputs found

    Method and apparatus for producing concentric hollow spheres

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    Hollow spheres with precisely concentric inner and outer spherical surfaces are formed by applying vibrations to a nonconcentric hollow sphere while it is at an elevated temperature at which it is fluid or plastic, the vibrations producing internal flows which cause the inner and outer surfaces to become precisely concentric. Concentric spheres can be mass produced by extruding a material such as glass or metal while injecting a stream of gas into the center of the extrusion to form a gas-filled tube. Vibrations are applied to the extruded tube to help break it up into individual bodies of a desired uniform size, the bodies tending to form spherical inner and outer surfaces by reason of surface tension, and the continuing application of vibrations causing these surfaces to become concentric

    Acoustic energy shaping

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    A suspended mass is shaped by melting all or a selected portion of the mass and applying acoustic energy in varying amounts to different portions of the mass. In one technique for forming an optical waveguide slug, a mass of oval section is suspended and only a portion along the middle of the cross-section is heated to a largely fluid consistency. Acoustic energy is applied to opposite edges of the oval mass to press the unheated opposite edge portions together so as to form bulges at the middle of the mass. In another technique for forming a ribbon of silicon for constructing solar cells, a cylindrical thread of silicon is drawn from a molten mass of silicon, and acoustic energy is applied to opposite sides of the molten thread to flatten it into a ribbon

    Analyses of the Nmr Spectra of the Vinyl Protons of Cyclopentadiene and Cyclohexadiene Using Spin Decoupling

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    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of vinyl protons of cyclopentadiene and cyclohexadiene from spin decouplin

    Normal modes of a compound drop

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    The modes are characterized by their frequency, the attendant displacement of fluid boundaries, and the flow pressure fields within the fluids. The drops consist of three fluids; a core fluid, a fluid shell surrounding the core, and a host fluid surrounding the shell. These fluids are assumed to be inviscid and incompressible, and the core and the shell to be concentric. The theory is obtained by linearization of the equations of fluid motion to the lowest order of nonlinearity that yields the normal modes. Numerical values of mode frequencies and the associated relative displacements of the fluid boundaries are presented for several specific systems, and the results compared with observations

    Acoustic bubble removal method

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    A method is described for removing bubbles from a liquid bath such as a bath of molten glass to be used for optical elements. Larger bubbles are first removed by applying acoustic energy resonant to a bath dimension to drive the larger bubbles toward a pressure well where the bubbles can coalesce and then be more easily removed. Thereafter, submillimeter bubbles are removed by applying acoustic energy of frequencies resonant to the small bubbles to oscillate them and thereby stir liquid immediately about the bubbles to facilitate their breakup and absorption into the liquid

    Acoustic containerless experiment system: A non-contact surface tension measurement

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    The Acoustic Containerless Experiment System (ACES) was flown on STS 41-B in February 1984 and was scheduled to be reflown in 1986. The primary experiment that was to be conducted with the ACES module was the containerless melting and processing of a fluoride glass sample. A second experiment that was to be conducted was the verification of a non-contact surface tension measurement technique using the molten glass sample. The ACES module consisted of a three-axis acoustic positioning module that was inside an electric furnace capable of heating the system above the melting temperature of the sample. The acoustic module is able to hold the sample with acoustic forces in the center of the chamber and, in addition, has the capability of applying a modulating force on the sample along one axis of the chamber so that the molten sample or liquid drop could be driven into one of its normal oscillation modes. The acoustic module could also be adjusted so that it could place a torque on the molten drop and cause the drop to rotate. In the ACES, a modulating frequency was applied to the drop and swept through a range of frequencies that would include the n = 2 mode. A maximum amplitude of the drop oscillation would indicate when resonance was reached and from that data the surface tension could be calculated. For large viscosity samples, a second technique for measuring surface tension was developed. The results of the ACES experiment and some of the problems encountered during the actual flight of the experiment will be discussed

    Superconductive magnetic-field-trapping device

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    An apparatus which enables the establishment of a magnetic field in air that has the same intensity as the ones in ferromagnetic materials is described. The apparatus is comprised of a core of ferromagnetic material and is surrounded by a cylinder made of a material that has superconducting properties when cooled below a critical temperature. A method is provided for producing a magnetic field through the ferromagnetic core. The core can also be split and pulled apart when it is required that the center of the cavity be left empty

    Heat-operated cryogenic electrical generator

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    Generator operation is based upon unusual hydrodynamic properties exhibited by liquid helium below superfluid critical point. Below that temperature, liquid behaves as though it is mixture of two interpenetrating fluids. When transition takes place between superfluid and normal states, conservation of momentum is always balanced by normal fluid

    Closed loop electrostatic levitation system

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    An electrostatic levitation system is described, which can closely control the position of objects of appreciable size. A plurality of electrodes surround the desired position of an electrostatically charged object, the position of the objects is monitored, and the voltages applied to the electrodes are varied to hold the object at a desired position. In one system, the object is suspended above a plate-like electrode which has a concave upper face to urge the object toward the vertical axis of the curved plate. An upper electrode that is also curved can be positioned above the object, to assure curvature of the field at any height above the lower plate. In another system, four spherical electrodes are positioned at the points of a tetrahedron, and the voltages applied to the electrodes are varied in accordance with the object position as detected by two sensors

    Resonant chambers for suspending materials in air

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    Acoustical pressure of standing wave is used to suspend materials inside resonant chambers. Material is driven to standing-wave antinodes where pressure is lowest. Pressure at nodes is greatest, which prevents suspended material from collecting there. Material can be moved inside chambers by changing wave patterns
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