681 research outputs found

    Fixed Volume Effect on Polar Properties and Phase Diagrams of Ferroelectric Semi-ellipsoidal Nanoparticles

    Full text link
    For advanced applications in modern industry it is very important to reduce the volume of ferroelectric nanoparticles without serious deterioration of their polar properties. In many practically important cases fixed volume (rather than fixed size) corresponds to realistic technological conditions of nanoparticles fabrication. The letter is focused on the theoretical study of the behavior of ferroelectric polarization, paramagnetoelectric coefficient and phase diagrams of semi-ellipsoidal nanoparticles with fixed volume V. Our approach combines the Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire phenomenology, classical electrostatics and elasticity theory. Our results show that the size effects of the phase diagrams and polarization of semi-ellipsoidal BiFeO3 nanoparticles nontrivially depends on V. These findings provide a path to optimize the polar properties of nanoparticles by controlling their phase diagrams at a fixed volume.Comment: 15 pages, 5 figures, we added the section IV. Paramagnetoelectric (PME) coefficient at fixed volume in this version and changed title and abstract accordingl

    Mesoscopic theory of defect ordering-disordering transitions in thin oxide films

    Full text link
    Ordering of mobile defects in functional materials can give rise to fundamentally new phases possessing ferroic and multiferroic functionalities. Here we develop the Landau theory for strain induced ordering of defects (e.g. oxygen vacancies) in thin oxide films, considering both the ordering and wavelength of possible instabilities. Using derived analytical expressions for the energies of various defect-ordered states, we calculated and analyzed phase diagrams dependence on the film-substrate mismatch strain, concentration of defects, and Vegard coefficients. Obtained results open possibilities to create and control superstructures of ordered defects in thin oxide films by selecting the appropriate substrate and defect concentration.Comment: 30 pages, 5 figures, 1 appendi

    Exploring the pre-immune landscape of antigen-specific T cells

    Get PDF
    Abstract Background Adaptive immune responses to newly encountered pathogens depend on the mobilization of antigen-specific clonotypes from a vastly diverse pool of naive T cells. Using recent advances in immune repertoire sequencing technologies, models of the immune receptor rearrangement process, and a database of annotated T cell receptor (TCR) sequences with known specificities, we explored the baseline frequencies of T cells specific for defined human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I-restricted epitopes in healthy individuals. Methods We used a database of TCR sequences with known antigen specificities and a probabilistic TCR rearrangement model to estimate the baseline frequencies of TCRs specific to distinct antigens epitopespecificT-cells. We verified our estimates using a publicly available collection of TCR repertoires from healthy individuals. We also interrogated a database of immunogenic and non-immunogenic peptides is used to link baseline T-cell frequencies with epitope immunogenicity. Results Our findings revealed a high degree of variability in the prevalence of T cells specific for different antigens that could be explained by the physicochemical properties of the corresponding HLA class I-bound peptides. The occurrence of certain rearrangements was influenced by ancestry and HLA class I restriction, and umbilical cord blood samples contained higher frequencies of common pathogen-specific TCRs. We also identified a quantitative link between specific T cell frequencies and the immunogenicity of cognate epitopes presented by defined HLA class I molecules. Conclusions Our results suggest that the population frequencies of specific T cells are strikingly non-uniform across epitopes that are known to elicit immune responses. This inference leads to a new definition of epitope immunogenicity based on specific TCR frequencies, which can be estimated with a high degree of accuracy in silico, thereby providing a novel framework to integrate computational and experimental genomics with basic and translational research efforts in the field of T cell immunology

    Search for new particles in events with energetic jets and large missing transverse momentum in proton-proton collisions at root s=13 TeV

    Get PDF
    A search is presented for new particles produced at the LHC in proton-proton collisions at root s = 13 TeV, using events with energetic jets and large missing transverse momentum. The analysis is based on a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 101 fb(-1), collected in 2017-2018 with the CMS detector. Machine learning techniques are used to define separate categories for events with narrow jets from initial-state radiation and events with large-radius jets consistent with a hadronic decay of a W or Z boson. A statistical combination is made with an earlier search based on a data sample of 36 fb(-1), collected in 2016. No significant excess of events is observed with respect to the standard model background expectation determined from control samples in data. The results are interpreted in terms of limits on the branching fraction of an invisible decay of the Higgs boson, as well as constraints on simplified models of dark matter, on first-generation scalar leptoquarks decaying to quarks and neutrinos, and on models with large extra dimensions. Several of the new limits, specifically for spin-1 dark matter mediators, pseudoscalar mediators, colored mediators, and leptoquarks, are the most restrictive to date.Peer reviewe

    Probing effective field theory operators in the associated production of top quarks with a Z boson in multilepton final states at root s=13 TeV