13 research outputs found

    Quality by design micro-engineering optimisation of NSAID-loaded electrospun fibrous patches

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    The purpose of this study was to apply the Quality by Design (QbD) approach to the electrospinning of fibres loaded with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) indomethacin (INDO) and diclofenac sodium (DICLO). A Quality Target Product Profile (QTPP) was made, and risk assessments (preliminary hazard analysis) were conducted to identify the impact of material attributes and process parameters on the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of the fibres. A full factorial design of experiments (DoE) of 20 runs was built, which was used to carry out experiments. The following factors were assessed: Drugs, voltage, flow rate, and the distance between the processing needle and collector. Release studies exhibited INDO fibres had greater total release of active drug compared to DICLO fibres. Voltage and distance were found to be the most significant factors of the experiment. Multivariate statistical analytical software helped to build six feasible design spaces and two flexible, universal design spaces for both drugs, at distances of 5 cm and 12.5 cm, along with a flexible control strategy. The current findings and their analysis confirm that QbD is a viable and invaluable tool to enhance product and process understanding of electrospinning for the assurance of high-quality fibres

    Design and Prototype Fabrication of a Cost-Effective Microneedle Drug Delivery Apparatus Using Fused Filament Fabrication, Liquid Crystal Display and Semi-Solid Extrusion 3D Printing Technologies

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    The current study describes the design of a cost-effective drug delivery apparatus that can be manufactured, assembled, and utilized as easily and quickly as possible, minimizing the time and expense of the supply chain. This apparatus could become a realistic alternative method of providing a vaccine or drug in harsh circumstances, including humanitarian disasters or a lack of medical and nursing staff, conditions that are frequently observed in developing countries. Simultaneously, with the use of microneedles (MNs), the apparatus can benefit from the numerous advantages offered by them during administration. The hollow microneedles in particular are internally perforated and are capable of delivering the active substance to the skin. The apparatus was designed with appropriate details in computer aided design software, and various 3D printing technologies were utilized in order to fabricate the prototype. The parts that required minimum accuracy, such as the main body of the apparatus, were fabricated with fused filament fabrication. The internal parts and the hollow microneedles were fabricated with liquid crystal display, and the substance for the drug loading carrier, which was an alginate gel cylinder, was fabricated with semi-solid extrusion 3D printing

    Synthesis of D-Limonene Loaded Polymeric Nanoparticles with Enhanced Antimicrobial Properties for Potential Application in Food Packaging

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    Mini-emulsion polymerization was applied for the synthesis of cross-linked polymeric nanoparticles comprised of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and Triethylene Glycol Dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) copolymers, used as matrix-carriers for hosting D-limonene. D-limonene was selected as a model essential oil, well known for its pleasant odor and its enhanced antimicrobial properties. The synthesized particles were assessed for their morphology and geometric characteristics by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), which revealed the formation of particles with mean diameters at the nanoscale (D[3,2] = 0.135 ╬╝m), with a spherical shape, while the dried particles formed larger clusters of several microns (D[3,2] = 80.69 ╬╝m). The percentage of the loaded D-limonene was quantified by Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), complemented by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry analysis coupled with a pyrolysis unit (Py/GC-MS). The results showed that the volatiles emitted by the nanoparticles were composed mainly of D-limonene (10% w/w of dry particles). Particles subjected to higher temperatures tended to decompose. The mechanism that governs the release of D-limonene from the as-synthesized particles was studied by fitting mathematical models to the release data obtained by isothermal TGA analysis of the dry particles subjected to accelerated conditions. The analysis revealed a two-stage release of the volatiles, one governed by D-limonene release and the other governed by TEGDMA release. Finally, the antimicrobial potency of the D-limonene-loaded particles was demonstrated, indicating the successful synthesis of polymeric nanoparticles loaded with D-limonene, owing to enhanced antimicrobial properties. The overall performance of these nanoparticles renders them a promising candidate material for the formation of self-sterilized surfaces with enhanced antimicrobial activity and potential application in food packaging

    Synthesis of D-Limonene Loaded Polymeric Nanoparticles with Enhanced Antimicrobial Properties for Potential Application in Food Packaging

    No full text
    Mini-emulsion polymerization was applied for the synthesis of cross-linked polymeric nanoparticles comprised of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and Triethylene Glycol Dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) copolymers, used as matrix-carriers for hosting D-limonene. D-limonene was selected as a model essential oil, well known for its pleasant odor and its enhanced antimicrobial properties. The synthesized particles were assessed for their morphology and geometric characteristics by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), which revealed the formation of particles with mean diameters at the nanoscale (D[3,2] = 0.135 μm), with a spherical shape, while the dried particles formed larger clusters of several microns (D[3,2] = 80.69 μm). The percentage of the loaded D-limonene was quantified by Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), complemented by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry analysis coupled with a pyrolysis unit (Py/GC-MS). The results showed that the volatiles emitted by the nanoparticles were composed mainly of D-limonene (10% w/w of dry particles). Particles subjected to higher temperatures tended to decompose. The mechanism that governs the release of D-limonene from the as-synthesized particles was studied by fitting mathematical models to the release data obtained by isothermal TGA analysis of the dry particles subjected to accelerated conditions. The analysis revealed a two-stage release of the volatiles, one governed by D-limonene release and the other governed by TEGDMA release. Finally, the antimicrobial potency of the D-limonene-loaded particles was demonstrated, indicating the successful synthesis of polymeric nanoparticles loaded with D-limonene, owing to enhanced antimicrobial properties. The overall performance of these nanoparticles renders them a promising candidate material for the formation of self-sterilized surfaces with enhanced antimicrobial activity and potential application in food packaging

    Solid Dosage Forms of Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate Intended for Pediatric Use: Formulation and Stability Studies

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    Undesirable taste has always been a key issue for oral dosage forms. The aim of the present study was to co-formulate dexamethasone sodium phosphate (DSP), in common pediatric oral forms, using sweet preserves and/or different types of chocolate as excipients. An array of different kinds of chocolate were co-formulated with DSP and were further characterized by means of dynamic light scattering (DLS), x-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. For the assay of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), the chocolate samples were pre-treated by means of liquid extraction and analyzed using an high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method with a strong anion exchange column and a phosphate buffer (17 mM, pH = 3)/acetonitrile, 50:50 v/v as mobile phase. The developed chromatographic method was validated based on the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines (%Mean Recovery = 99.4% and %Relative Standard Deviation, RSD = 0.43%). Furthermore, dissolution and in vitro digestion tests of chocolate formulations were evaluated. The DSP was found to be stable for at least 1 year in prepared preparations

    Effect of Glyceryl Monoolein Addition on the Foaming Properties and Stability of Whipped Oleogels

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    Medium Chain Triglyceride (MCT) oil was successfully combined with Glyceryl Monostearate (GMS) and Glyceryl Monoolein (GMO) to form oleogels that were subsequently whipped to form stable oleofoams. The co-crystallization of GMS and GMO at a ratio of 20:1, 20:2.5, and 20:5 within MCT oil was studied through Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), X-ray Diffraction analysis (XRD), rheological analysis, Fluorescence Recovery after Photobleaching (FRAP), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), and polarized microscopy. The addition of 5% GMO resulted in the production of more stable oleogels in terms of crystal structure and higher peak melting point, rendering this formulation suitable for pharmaceutical applications that are intended to be used internally and those that require stability at temperatures close to 40 °C. All formulations were whipped to form oleofoams that were evaluated for their storage stability for prolonged period at different temperatures. The results show that oleofoams containing 5% MGO retained their foam characteristics even after 3 months of storage under different temperature conditions

    Oral Drug Delivery Systems Based on Ordered Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles for Modulating the Release of Aprepitant

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    Two different types of ordered mesoporous nanoparticles, namely MCM-41 and MCM-48, with similar pore sizes but different pore connectivity, were loaded with aprepitant via a passive diffusion method. The percentage of the loaded active agent, along with the encapsulation efficiency, was evaluated using High-performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis complemented by Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). The determination of the pore properties of the mesoporous particles before and after the drug loading revealed the presence of confined aprepitant in the pore structure of the particles, while Powder X-ray Diffractometry(pXRD), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), and FTIR experiments indicated that the drug is in an amorphous state. The release profiles of the drug from the two different mesoporous materials were studied in various release media and revealed an aprepitant release up to 45% when sink conditions are applied. The cytocompatibility of the silica nanoparticles was assessed in Caco-2 cell monolayers, in the presence and absence of the active agent, suggesting that they can be used as carriers of aprepitant without presenting any toxicity in vitro

    Fabrication and Preliminary In Vitro Evaluation of 3D-Printed Alginate Films with Cannabidiol (CBD) and Cannabigerol (CBG) Nanoparticles for Potential Wound-Healing Applications

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    In this study, drug carrier nanoparticles comprised of Pluronic-F127 and cannabidiol (CBD) or cannabigerol (CBG) were developed, and their wound healing action was studied. They were further incorporated in 3D printed films based on sodium alginate. The prepared films were characterized morphologically and physicochemically and used to evaluate the drug release profiles of the nanoparticles. Additional studies on their water loss rate, water retention capacity, and 3D-printing shape fidelity were performed. Nanoparticles were characterized physicochemically and for their drug loading performance. They were further assessed for their cytotoxicity (MTT Assay) and wound healing action (Cell Scratch Assay). The in vitro wound-healing study showed that the nanoparticles successfully enhanced wound healing in the first 6 h of application, but in the following 6 h they had an adverse effect. MTT assay studies revealed that in the first 24 h, a concentration of 0.1 mg/mL nanoparticles resulted in satisfactory cell viability, whereas CBG nanoparticles were safe even at 48 h. However, in higher concentrations and after a threshold of 24 h, the cell viability was significantly decreased. The results also presented mono-disperse nano-sized particles with diameters smaller than 200 nm with excellent release profiles and enhanced thermal stability. Their entrapment efficiency and drug loading properties were higher than 97%. The release profiles of the active pharmaceutical ingredients from the films revealed a complete release within 24 h. The fabricated 3D-printed films hold promise for wound healing applications; however, more studies are needed to further elucidate their mechanism of action
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