15 research outputs found

    Orally Disintegrating Tablets

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    Research and development costs for a single new pharmaceutical that is introduced to the market are estimated to cost between 1billionand1 billion and 2 billion. Due to the high cost of development and the need to quickly access various technologies, it is more cost-effective (clinically and financially) to enhance current pharmaceuticals for potency, selectivity, drug metabolism, and dosing convenience before they reach the market. Orally dissolving tablets have been developed as a result. Pharmaceutical companies have created oral disintegrating tablets that dissolve or disintegrate in the mouth within a few seconds of being placed there in order to maximize the safety and efficacy of the medicine molecule. Because patients with weak physiological (patients with mental illnesses) and physical capacities can easily administer it to geriatrics, children, and patients with these conditions (patients suffering from dysphagia), as well as traveling patients who may not have easy access to water and where swallowing conventional solid oral-dosage forms presents difficulties, it has grown in popularity among a wide population. These tablets can be prepared in many ways like direct compression, freeze drying, sublimation, molding, and spray drying by using single or combinations of superdisintegrants or subliming agents

    A Microfluidic Device as a Drug Carrier

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    The development of nanomedicine or medical nanotechnology, has brought important new ways to the development of medicines and biotechnology products. As a result of groundbreaking discoveries in the use of nanoscale materials significant commercialization initiatives have been launched and are at the forefront of the rapidly expanding field of nanotechnology by using smart particles. Microfluidic technologies use nano-and micro-scale manufacturing technologies to develop controlled and reproducible liquid microenvironments. Lead compounds with controlled physicochemical properties can be obtained using microfluidics, characterized by high productivity, and evaluated by biomimetic methods. Microfluidics, for example, can not only produce nanoparticles in a well-controlled, reproducible, and high-throughput manner, but it can also continuously create three-dimensional environments to mimic physiological and/or pathological processes. Materials with smart properties can be manipulated to respond in a controllable and reversible way, modifying some of their properties as a result of external stimuli such as mechanical stress or a certain temperature. All in all, microfluidic technology offers a potential platform for the rapid synthesis of various novel drug delivery systems. Therefore, these smart particles are equally necessary as the drug in drug delivery

    Prevalence of Anaemia in Pregnant Womens and Associated Risk Factors in Western Ethiopia

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    Background: Anaemia is a global public health problem which has an eminence impact on pregnant mother. The aim of thisstudy was to assess the prevalence and associated risk factor of maternal anemia.Method:A cross-sectional study design was conducted from April to May, 2014 on 286 pregnant women attending antenatal care in Nekemte Referral Hospital, Western Ethiopia. Hemoglobin level was determined by using HemoCue photometer, and interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect associated risk factors. Data were cleaned, coded and fed into SPSS version 20.0 for analysis. Result:Among the 286 study participants, 29% were anaemic. Out of these majorities were mild types 72.20%. Pregnant woman who were HIV sero-reactive(Adjusted odds ratio (AOR)= 20.930, 95% CI =2.441-179.428), low family income(AOR= 17.384, 95% CI =3.757-80.443), having low dietary level (AOR =19.041, 95% CI=1.767-205.213)Β  and body mass index (AOR =7.39, 95% CI=0.994-55.047), and infected with soil transmittedHelminth(STH)(AOR=33.555, 95% CI= 5.748-195.894) had higher odds of being anaemic with comparing to their counterpart but gestational age of first (AOR=0.07, 95% CI=.008-0.61) and second AOR =0.29, 95% CI= 0.09-0.918) trimester has lower odds of being anaemic when comparing to the third trimester. Conclusion:The prevalence of anemia was high; mild type anaemias were dominant. Low family income, having low dietary level and body mass index, STHand HIV infection were significantly associated with anemia. Antenatal care should promote de-worming, education on dietary practice and personal hygiene Therefor, there is a need to design strategies that help to diagnosis early and management of HIV and STHinfection during their antenatal care (ANC) visit instead of testing for only haemoglobin (Hgb) levels and bloodgroup. Key Words: Prevalence, Anemia, ANC, Pregnant, Western Ethiopia

    Prevalence and associated factors of structural congenital anomalies in resource limited setting, 2023: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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    BackgroundSeveral studies have been conducted on structural congenital anomalies (CA). However, there is a paucity of studies that provide a comprehensive review of structural anomalies. We aimed to verify the available research articles to pool the possible risk factors of structural CA in resource-limited settings.SettingThe research articles were genuinely searched using PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, free Google database search engines, Google Scholar, and ScienceDirect databases. Published studies were searched and screened for inclusion in the final analysis, and studies without sound methodologies and review and meta-analysis were not included in the analysis.ParticipantsThis review analyzed data from 95,755 women who gave birth as reported by primary studies. Ten articles were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. The articles that had incomplete information and case reports were excluded from the study.ResultsThe overall pooled effect estimate (EI) of structural CA was 5.50 (4.88–6.12) per 100 births. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, maternal illness EI with odds ratio (OR) = 4.93 (95% CI: 1.02–8.85), unidentified drug use with OR = 2.83 (95% CI: 1.19–4.46), birth weight with OR = 4.20 (95% CI: 2.12–6.28), chewing chat with OR = 3.73 (95% CI: 1.20–6.30), chemical exposure with OR = 4.27 (95% CI: 1.19–8.44), and taking folic acid tablet during pregnancy with OR = 6.01 (95% CI: 2.87–14.89) were statistically significant in this meta-regression.ConclusionsThe overall pooled effect estimate of structural CA in a resource-limited setting was high compared to that in countries with better resources. Maternal illness, unidentified drug use, birth weight, chewing chat, chemical exposure, and never using folic acid were found to be statistically significant variables in the meta-regression. Preconception care and adequate intake of folic acid before and during early pregnancy should be advised.Systematic Review Registrationhttps://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/, identifier CRD42022384838

    Do pregnant African women exercise? A meta-analysis.

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    IntroductionAntenatal exercise can reduce gestational weight gain, backache; pregnancy induced medical disorders, caesarean section rates, and improves pregnancy outcomes. American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology (ACOG) recommends prenatal exercise, which is associated with minimal risk and has been shown to be beneficial for pregnancy outcomes, although some exercise routines may need to be modified. Consequently, this meta-analysis is intended to verify the pooled practice of antenatal exercise in Africa using available primary articles.MethodsGenuine search of the research articles was done via PubMed, Scopes, Cochrane library, the Web of Science; free Google databases search engines, Google Scholar, and Science Direct databases. Published and unpublished articles were searched and screened for inclusion in the final analysis and Studies without sound methodologies, and review and meta-analysis were not included in this analysis. The Newcastle-Ottawa scale was used to assess the risk of bias. If heterogeneity exceeded 40%, the random effect method was used; otherwise, the fixed-effect method was used. Meta-analysis was conducted using STATA version 14.0 software. Publication bias was checked by funnel plot and Egger test.ResultsThis review analyzed data from 2880 women on antenatal care contact from different primary studies. The overall pooled effect estimate of antenatal exercise in Africa was 34.50(32.63-36.37). In the subgroup analysis for pooled antenatal exercise practice by country, it was 34.24 (31.41-37.08) in Ethiopia and 37.64(34.63-40.65) in Nigeria.ConclusionThe overall pooled effect estimate of antenatal exercise in Africa was low compared to other continent. As it was recommended by ACOG antenatal exercise to every patient in the absence of contraindications, it should be encouraged by professionals providing antenatal care service

    NOS quality assessment.

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    BackgroundA number of studies have looked at neonatal structural birth defects. However, there is no study with a comprehensive review of structural anomalies. Therefor we aimed to verify the best available articles to pool possible risk factors of structural congenital anomalies in resource limited settings.SettingGenuine search of the research articles was done via PubMed, Scopes, Cochrane library, the Web of Science; free Google database search engines, Google Scholar, and Science Direct databases. Published and unpublished articles were searched and screened for inclusion in the final analysis and Studies without sound methodologies, and review and meta-analysis were not included in this analysis.ParticipantsThis review analyzed data from 95,755 women who have birthed from as reported by primary studies. Ten articles were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. Articles which have no full information important for the analysis and case reports were excluded from the study.ResultsThe overall pooled effect estimate of structural congenital anomalies was 5.50 [4.88–6.12]. In this systematic review and meta-analysis maternal illness effect estimate (EI) with odds ratio (OR) = 4.93 (95%CI 1.02–8.85), unidentified drug use OR = 2.83 (95%CI 1.19–4.46), birth weight OR = 4.20 (95%CI 2.12–6.28), chewing chat OR = 3.73 (95%CI 1.20–6.30), chemical exposure OR = 4.27 (95%CI 1.19–8.44) and taking folic acid tablet during pregnancy OR = 6.01 (95%CI 2.87–14.89) were statistically significant in this meta-regression.ConclusionsThe overall pooled effect estimate of structural congenital anomalies in a resource limited setting was high compared to better resource countries. On the Meta-regression maternal illness, unidentified drug use, birth weight, chewing chat, chemical exposure and never using folic acid were found to be statistically significant variables Preconception care and adequate intake of folic acid before and during early pregnancy should be advised.</div

    MeSH terms.

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    BackgroundA number of studies have looked at neonatal structural birth defects. However, there is no study with a comprehensive review of structural anomalies. Therefor we aimed to verify the best available articles to pool possible risk factors of structural congenital anomalies in resource limited settings.SettingGenuine search of the research articles was done via PubMed, Scopes, Cochrane library, the Web of Science; free Google database search engines, Google Scholar, and Science Direct databases. Published and unpublished articles were searched and screened for inclusion in the final analysis and Studies without sound methodologies, and review and meta-analysis were not included in this analysis.ParticipantsThis review analyzed data from 95,755 women who have birthed from as reported by primary studies. Ten articles were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. Articles which have no full information important for the analysis and case reports were excluded from the study.ResultsThe overall pooled effect estimate of structural congenital anomalies was 5.50 [4.88–6.12]. In this systematic review and meta-analysis maternal illness effect estimate (EI) with odds ratio (OR) = 4.93 (95%CI 1.02–8.85), unidentified drug use OR = 2.83 (95%CI 1.19–4.46), birth weight OR = 4.20 (95%CI 2.12–6.28), chewing chat OR = 3.73 (95%CI 1.20–6.30), chemical exposure OR = 4.27 (95%CI 1.19–8.44) and taking folic acid tablet during pregnancy OR = 6.01 (95%CI 2.87–14.89) were statistically significant in this meta-regression.ConclusionsThe overall pooled effect estimate of structural congenital anomalies in a resource limited setting was high compared to better resource countries. On the Meta-regression maternal illness, unidentified drug use, birth weight, chewing chat, chemical exposure and never using folic acid were found to be statistically significant variables Preconception care and adequate intake of folic acid before and during early pregnancy should be advised.</div
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