18 research outputs found

    Rare coding variants in ten genes confer substantial risk for schizophrenia

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    Rare coding variation has historically provided the most direct connections between gene function and disease pathogenesis. By meta-analysing the whole exomes of 24,248 schizophrenia cases and 97,322 controls, we implicate ultra-rare coding variants (URVs) in 10 genes as conferring substantial risk for schizophrenia (odds ratios of 3-50, PPeer reviewe

    Dissecting the Shared Genetic Architecture of Suicide Attempt, Psychiatric Disorders, and Known Risk Factors

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    Background Suicide is a leading cause of death worldwide, and nonfatal suicide attempts, which occur far more frequently, are a major source of disability and social and economic burden. Both have substantial genetic etiology, which is partially shared and partially distinct from that of related psychiatric disorders. Methods We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 29,782 suicide attempt (SA) cases and 519,961 controls in the International Suicide Genetics Consortium (ISGC). The GWAS of SA was conditioned on psychiatric disorders using GWAS summary statistics via multitrait-based conditional and joint analysis, to remove genetic effects on SA mediated by psychiatric disorders. We investigated the shared and divergent genetic architectures of SA, psychiatric disorders, and other known risk factors. Results Two loci reached genome-wide significance for SA: the major histocompatibility complex and an intergenic locus on chromosome 7, the latter of which remained associated with SA after conditioning on psychiatric disorders and replicated in an independent cohort from the Million Veteran Program. This locus has been implicated in risk-taking behavior, smoking, and insomnia. SA showed strong genetic correlation with psychiatric disorders, particularly major depression, and also with smoking, pain, risk-taking behavior, sleep disturbances, lower educational attainment, reproductive traits, lower socioeconomic status, and poorer general health. After conditioning on psychiatric disorders, the genetic correlations between SA and psychiatric disorders decreased, whereas those with nonpsychiatric traits remained largely unchanged. Conclusions Our results identify a risk locus that contributes more strongly to SA than other phenotypes and suggest a shared underlying biology between SA and known risk factors that is not mediated by psychiatric disorders.Peer reviewe

    <i>In vivo</i> application of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer in rheumatoid arthritis rat model

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    A magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer (MMIP) was synthesised and tested for an in vivo rheumatoid arthritis (RA) rat model. Magnetite coated with mesoporous silica (Fe2O3@mSi) was used as core for surface imprinting, dopamine was used as monomer and methotrexate (MTX) was loaded directly during polymerisation. The amount of MTX loaded on MMIPs reached 201.165 ± 0.315 µmol/g. Characterisation of the polymers was done via SEM, TEM, and FTIR. The pharmacological effect of the selected MMIP was evaluated in a Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA) induced arthritis rat model where a 3D magnet bearing construct was designed for targeted delivery of MMIPs. The parameters evaluated were the change in paw edoema, paw diameter, gait score, and animal’s weight. Results revealed a tendency of MMIP to significantly improve the measured parameters which was confirmed with histopathological findings. In conclusion, the improvement in the arthritic signs associated with MMIP treatment compared to free MTX, indicated successful targeting of MMIPs to the site of inflammation.</p

    The Multi-Targeting Ligand ST-2223 with Histamine H3 Receptor and Dopamine D2/D3 Receptor Antagonist Properties Mitigates Autism-Like Repetitive Behaviors and Brain Oxidative Stress in Mice

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    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by social and communicative impairments, as well as repetitive and restricted behaviors (RRBs). With the limited effectiveness of current pharmacotherapies in treating repetitive behaviors, the present study determined the effects of acute systemic treatment of the novel multi-targeting ligand ST-2223, with incorporated histamine H3 receptor (H3R) and dopamine D2/D3 receptor affinity properties, on ASD-related RRBs in a male Black and Tan BRachyury (BTBR) mouse model of ASD. ST-2223 (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly mitigated the increase in marble burying and self-grooming, and improved reduced spontaneous alternation in BTBR mice (all p &lt; 0.05). Similarly, reference drugs memantine (MEM, 5 mg/kg, i.p.) and aripiprazole (ARP, 1 mg/kg, i.p.), reversed abnormally high levels of several RRBs in BTBR (p &lt; 0.05). Moreover, ST-2223 palliated the disturbed anxiety levels observed in an open field test (all p &lt; 0.05), but did not restore the hyperactivity parameters, whereas MEM failed to restore mouse anxiety and hyperactivity. In addition, ST-2223 (5 mg/kg, i.p.) mitigated oxidative stress status by decreasing the elevated levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), and increasing the levels of decreased glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) in different brain parts of treated BTBR mice (all p &lt; 0.05). These preliminary in vivo findings demonstrate the ameliorative effects of ST-2223 on RRBs in a mouse model of ASD, suggesting its pharmacological prospective to rescue core ASD-related behaviors. Further confirmatory investigations on its effects on various brain neurotransmitters, e.g., dopamine and histamine, in different brain regions are still warranted to corroborate and expand these initial data