339 research outputs found

    Quality Matters Review of LIB 2210: Applying the QM Rubric for Higher Education to an Information Literacy Course

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    This article discusses the use of the Quality Matters Rubric for Higher Education, 6th ed. to self-review an asynchronous information literacy course. In this instance, the authors acted as reviewers and subject matter experts (SME). The QM Rubric proved to be a useful tool that encompasses several instructional design best practices. After the official self-review period, the QM Rubric influenced the enhancement and updates to the course. The authors recommend more use of the QM Rubric by teaching librarians, collaboration with instructors going through a QM Review, and training for online teaching in Library and Information Science graduate programs

    Design Matters: How a Course Review Informed Online Teaching Best Practices

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    This paper discusses how an Applying the Quality Matters (QM) Rubric for Higher Education workshop had an impact on the online teaching practice of three academic librarians. The QM Rubric was used to review and update a credit-bearing information literacy course taught by the authors’ department. The authors reflect on how this training influenced their relationship to online teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic (and beyond), using examples from their own experiences to demonstrate how instruction librarians contributed to online education during this period and how they used sustainable teaching practices to lessen the workloads of their teaching colleagues. Future steps include improved documentation, assessment, management and maintenance of digital learning objects used in online teaching

    Electrochemical detection of non-esterified fatty acid by layer-by-layer assembled enzyme electrodes

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    AbstractIn this study, detection and measurement of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentration has been achieved by electrochemical method in one operation step. Multilayer films of poly(dimethyldiallyammonium chloride) (PDA) wrapped multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and two enzymes acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) and acyl-CoA oxidase (ACOD) were assembled on a carbon screen printed electrode by the layer-by-layer (LbL) immobilization. The fine polymer–enzyme layers produced by the LbL method, allowed mass transport from the reactant cascading down the layers to accomplish the two-step enzyme reactions. The polymer–CNTs and enzyme modified electrode exhibited good electrocatalytical property retaining enzyme activity. Linear increase of anodic current from H2O2 produced from NEFA oxidation was observed with the increasing concentrations of oleic acid. These results indicate a promising technique for a simple, rapid one-step determination of NEFA for diabetes management

    Identification of fully human monoclonal antibodies against the adhesin domain of colonizing factor antigen I of Escherichia coli

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    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) causes significant diarrheal illness in infants in the developing world and travelers to endemic countries including military personnel. Infection of the host involves bacterial colonization of the small intestinal epithelium and toxin secretion leading to watery diarrhea. CFA/I is the most common colonizing factor antigens expressed on the surface of ETEC isolates. The CFA/I adhesin, CfaE, appears to be required for ETEC binding to human intestinal cells for colonization. Human antibodies against the binding domain of CfaE have potential to block colonization of ETEC and serve as a potent immunoprophylactic therapeutic for ETEC-related diarrhea. In the current study, we generated a panel of fully human monoclonal antibodies (HuMabs) against the adhesin domain of CfaE using mice transgenic for human immunoglobulin genes and identified lead antibodies utilizing a series of in vitro assays. Mice were immunized with the N-terminal binding domain of CfaE fused to maltose binding protein. Over thirty unique IgG1 HuMabs were identified with binding activity to recombinant CfaE. These antibodies were tested for inhibition of hemagglutination of type A human erythrocytes by ETEC. Two lead HuMabs, 837-6 and 840-53, inhibited hemagglutination at low concentrations (\u3c 1 nM). Both antibodies also blocked the binding of ETEC with intestinal epithelial cells. Biacore analysis revealed an affinity of less than 2 nM with distinct epitopes of CfaE. Our analysis suggests that CfaE specific HuMabs 837-6 and 840-53, as the first isolated fully human monoclonal antibodies against CfaE adhesion domain, could potentially be used in combination with heat labile toxin neutralizing antibodies to prevent traveler’s diarrhea

    Gut-Homing Conventional Plasmablasts and CD27− Plasmablasts Elicited after a Short Time of Exposure to an Oral Live-Attenuated Shigella Vaccine Candidate in Humans

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    Currently, there is no licensed Shigella vaccine; however, various promising live-attenuated vaccine candidates have emerged, including CVD1208S (ΔguaBA, Δset, Δsen S. flexneri 2a), which was shown to be safe and immunogenic in Phase 1 clinical trials. Here, we report the immune responses elicited in an outpatient Phase 2 clinical trial in which subjects were vaccinated with CVD 1208S. Oral immunization with CVD 1208S elicited high anti-S. flexneri 2a LPS and IpaB antibody responses as well as an acute plasmablast (PB) infiltration in peripheral blood 7 days after immunization. PB sorted based on their expression of homing molecules confirmed that cells expressing integrin α4β7 alone or in combination with CD62L were responsible for antibody production (as measured by ELISpot). Furthermore, using high-color flow-cytometry, on day 7 after immunization, we observed the appearance of conventional PB (CPB, CD19(dim) CD20(−) CD27(+high) CD38(+high) CD3(−)), as well as a PB population that did not express CD27 (CD27(−) PB; pre-plasmablasts). The pattern of individual or simultaneous expression of homing markers (integrin α4β7, CD62L, CXCR3, and CXCR4) suggested that CPB cells homed preferentially to the inflamed gut mucosa. In contrast, ~50% CD27(−) PB cells appear to home to yet to be identified peripheral lymphoid organs or were in a transition state preceding integrin α4β7 upregulation. In sum, these observations demonstrate that strong immune responses, including distinct PB subsets with the potential to home to the gut and other secondary lymphoid organs, can be elicited after a short time of exposure to a shigella oral vaccine

    Lactobacillus gasseri APC 678 reduces shedding of the pathogen Clostridium difficile in a murine model

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    Clostridium difficile is a common cause of health-care acquired diarrhoea, resulting in a spectrum of disease from mild diarrhoea to life-threatening illness. Sixty Lactobacillus strains were screened for anti-C. difficile activity using a co-culture method. Based on their ability to inhibit C. difficile, L. gasseri APC 678 (PB-678TM) and L. rhamnosus DPC 6111 were selected for study in a murine model of C. difficile infection. L. gasseri ATCC 33323, was included as a control. It was established that, relative to control mice not fed Lactobacillus, feeding with L. gasseri APC 678 resulted in a significant reduction by day 7 (8-fold, p=0.017) of viable C. difficile VPI 10463 in the feces of mice. In contrast, neither L. rhamnosus DPC 6111 nor L. gasseri ATCC 33323 significantly reduced fecal C. difficile shedding. Sequencing of the cecal microbiota showed that in mice fed L. gasseri APC 678 there was a significant increase in bacterial diversity across a number of indices when compared to the control or other Lactobacillus-fed groups. There was no significant change in the relative abundance of Firmicutes or Bacteroidetes in the group fed L. gasseri APC 678 relative to the control, while the groups fed L. rhamnosus DPC 6111 or L. gasseri ATCC 33323 showed a significant decrease in the relative abundance of Firmicutes (p=0.002 and p=0.019, respectively) and a significant increase in Bacteroidetes (p=0.002 and p=0.023, respectively). These results highlight the potential of L. gasseri APC 678 as a live therapeutic agent to target C. difficile infection

    1994-95 Advisory Council on Social Security Technical Panel on Assumptions and Methods Final Report

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    The Panel\u27s major conclusions are: The intermediate projection of the Trustees Report for the Old-Age. Survivors. and Disability Insurance (OASDI) program provide a reasonable evaluation of the financial status. Although the Panel suggests that modifications be considered in various specific assumptions, the overall effect of those suggestions would not significantly change the financial status evaluation. There should be evolutionary implementation of procedures to indicate more adequately the uncertainties involved in the projections. Even though such uncertainties are unavoidable, stochastic analysis should be used to examine more explicitly the probabilities of alternative projections. It is emphasized that there should be an extended period during which the new procedures would supplement, rather than replace, the current methods of considering high-cost and low-cost projections and individual assumption sensitivity analysis. Evaluation of the long-range financial status should put less emphasis on the 75-year actuarial balance and the test of long-range close actuarial balance. Prior to enactment of legislation reforming the program, primary emphasis should be on the projected date the Trust Fund Ratio would fall below 100 percent; when definitive legislative revisions are adopted, subsequent long-range evaluation should compare up-dated projections with the intended results of the legislation. There should be a substantial expansion of SSA\u27s resources and its interaction with experts in related areas: increased recognition should be given to the interrelationships between OASDI and many public and private programs as well as other aspects of the economy. Social Security Administration (SSA) staff does high quality work, but is relatively small and works with inadequate resources. In addition to internal expansion, there should be greater use of outside consultants and contractual research; periodic comprehensive review by technical panels should be supplemented by ongoing arrangements for advice on specific matters

    Identification and Characterization of Human Monoclonal Antibodies for Immunoprophylaxis Against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Infection

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    Background. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) cause diarrheal illness in infants in the developing world and travelers to endemic countries including military personnel. ETEC infection of the host involves colonization of the small intestinal epithelium and toxin secretion leading to watery diarrhea. There is currently no vaccine licensed to prevent ETEC. CFA/I is one of the most common colonization factor antigens (CFAs). The CFA/I adhesin subunit, CfaE, is required for ETEC adhesion to host intestinal cells. Human antibodies against CfaE have potential to block colonization of ETEC and serve as an immunoprophylactic against ETEC-related diarrhea. Methods. Mice transgenic for human immunoglobulin genes were immunized with CfaE to generate a panel of human monoclonal IgG1 antibodies (HuMAbs). The most potent IgG1 identified in the in vitro functional assays were selected and isotype switched to secretory IgA (sIgA) and tested in animal colonization assays via oral administration. Results. Over 300 unique anti-CfaE IgG1 HuMabs were identified. The lead IgG1 anti-CfaE HuMAbs completely inhibited hemagglutination and blocked adhesion of ETEC to Caco-2 cells. Epitope mapping studies revealed that HuMAbs recognized epitopes in the N-terminal domain of CfaE near the putative receptor binding site. Oral administration of anti-CfaE antibodies in either IgG or secretory IgA isotypes inhibited intestinal colonization in mice challenged with ETEC. A two to four log decrease of colony forming units was observed as compared to irrelevant isotype controls. Conclusions. We identified fully human monoclonal antibodies against CfaE adhesion domain that can be potentially employed as an immunoprophylaxis to prevent ETEC-related diarrhea
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