4 research outputs found

    Emotional reactivity to binge food and erotic cues in women with bulimia nervosa symptoms

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    This work was supported by the MECD [grant numbers FPU16/01200], 'Doctoral College "Imaging the Mind" (FWF; W1233-B)', a grant from Junta de Andalucia, Spain [Grant Code P12.SEJ.391], and a grant from the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness/MINECO (Grant Code: PSI2013-43777-P).Background: Studies on food cue reactivity have documented that altered responses to high-calorie food are associated with bulimic symptomatology, however, alterations in sexual motivations and behaviors are also associated clinical features in this population, which justify their inclusion as a research target. Here, we study responses to erotic cues—alongside food, neutral and aversive cues—to gain an understanding of specificity to food versus a generalized sensitivity to primary reinforcers. Methods: We recorded peripheral psychophysiological indices –the startle reflex, zygomaticus, and corrugator responses—and self-reported emotional responses (valence, arousal, and dominance) in 75 women completing the Bulimia Test-Revised (BULIT-R). Multiple regression analysis tested whether BULIT-R symptoms were predicted by selfreported and psychophysiological responses to food versus neutral and erotic versus neutral images. Results: The results showed that individuals with higher bulimic symptoms were characterized by potentiated eye blink startle response during binge food (vs. neutral images) and more positive valence ratings during erotic (vs. neutral) cues. Conclusions: The results highlight the negative emotional reactivity of individuals with elevated bulimic symptoms toward food cues, which could be related to the risk of progression to full bulimia nervosa and thereby addressed in prevention efforts. Results also point to the potential role of reactivity to erotic content, at least on a subjective level. Theoretical models of eating disorders should widen their conceptual scope to consider reactivity to a broader spectrum of primary reinforcers, which would have implications for cue exposure-based treatments. Plain English summary: We examined appetitive and aversive cue responses in college women to investigate how bulimic symptoms relate to primary reinforcers such as food and erotic images. We recorded peripheral psychophysiological indices (the startle reflex, zygomaticus, and corrugator responses) and self-reported emotional responses (valence, arousal, and dominance) in 75 college women that were presented with the Spanish version of the Bulimia Test-Revised. The results showed that bulimic symptoms increase both psychophysiological defensiveness toward food cues and subjective pleasure toward erotic cues. The findings suggest a generalized sensitivity to primary reinforcers in the presence of bulimic symptoms, and emphasize the relevance of adopting a wider framework in research and treatment on bulimia nervosa.MECD FPU16/01200Doctoral College "Imaging the Mind" (FWF) W1233-BJunta de Andalucia European Commission P12.SEJ.391Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness/MINECO PSI2013-43777-

    Exploring Changes in Event-Related Potentials After a Feasibility Trial of Inhibitory Training for Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder

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    In a feasibility trial comparing two forms of combined inhibitory control training and goal planning (i.e., food-specific and general) among patients with bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED), we found evidence of symptomatic benefit, with stronger effects among participants receiving a food-specific intervention. The aim of the present study was to examine changes in behavioral outcomes and event-related potentials (ERPs; N2 and P3 amplitudes) from baseline to post-intervention that might suggest the mechanisms underpinning these effects. Fifty-five participants completed go/no-go tasks during two electroencephalography (EEG) sessions, at baseline and post-intervention. The go/no-go task included "go" cues to low energy-dense foods and non-foods, and "no-go" cues to high energy-dense foods and non-foods. Datasets with poor signal quality and/or outliers were excluded, leaving 48 participants (N= 24 BN;N= 24 BED) in the analyses. Participants allocated to the food-specific, compared to the general intervention group, showed significantly greater reductions in reaction time to low energy-dense foods, compared to non-foods, by post-intervention. Commission errors significantly increased from baseline to post-intervention, regardless of stimulus type (food vs. non-food) and intervention group (food-specific vs. general). There were no significant changes in omission errors. P3 amplitudes to "no-go" cues marginally, but non-significantly, decreased by post-intervention, but there was no significant interaction with stimulus type (high energy-dense food vs. non-food) or intervention group (food-specific vs. general). There were no significant changes in N2 amplitudes to "no-go" cues, N2 amplitudes to "go" cues, or P3 amplitudes to "go" cues from baseline to post-intervention. Training effects were only marginally captured by these event-related potentials. We discuss limitations to the task paradigm, including its two-choice nature, ease of completion, and validity, and give recommendations for future research exploring ERPs using inhibitory control paradigms

    A highly cognitive demanding working memory task may prevent the development of nociceptive hypersensitivity

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    Whether, how, and which cognitive factors modulate the development of secondary hypersensitivity/hyperalgesia after central sensitization is not fully understood. Here, we tested, in 3 subsequent experiments, whether being engaged in non-pain-related cognitive demanding tasks: (1) lessens the amount of hypersensitivity developed after an experimental procedure sensitizing nociceptive pathways; and (2) modulates cortical responses to somatosensory stimuli (measured by electroencephalography, EEG). In the first experiment, we validated a novel model in humans using low-frequency stimulation of the skin and demonstrated that it was able to successfully induce hypersensitivity to mechanical pinprick stimuli in the area surrounding the sensitized site. In the second and third experiments, we engaged participants in tasks of increasing difficulty (the Eriksen Flanker Task in experiment 2, and a modified N-back task in experiment 3). We observed that hypersensitivity to mechanical stimuli still developed in experiment 2, that is, the pinprick stimuli applied on the sensitized arm were perceived as more intense after low-frequency stimulation. By contrast, no statistically significant enhancement of mechanical hypersensitivity was observed in experiment 3, indicating that, at the group level, being engaged in a difficult N-back task may interfere with the development of mechanical hypersensitivity. Contrary to previous studies, which have used different methods to induce sensitization, we did not observe any increase in the cortical response to somatosensory stimuli applied on the sensitized arm. We conclude that (1) the development of pinprick hypersensitivity is modulated by the concomitant execution of a difficult N-back task, and (2) the enhancement of cortical responses to somatosensory stimuli is related to the method used to induce central sensitization